Efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism

Luca Masotti, Cecilia Becattini, Roberto Cappelli, Giancarlo Landini, Alessandro Pampana, Domenico Prisco, Giancarlo Agnelli

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v1i1.14

Abstract

One of the main innovation emerged in recent years in the field of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been represented by the clinical development and marketing of new oral anticoagulant agents used for prophylaxis and acute treatment. These drugs are represented by direct thrombin inhibitors (anti-factor IIa) and the direct inhibitors of activated factor X (anti-Xa). The main achievement of these new agents is represented by their ease of use without laboratory monitoring or dose adjustment. Dabigatran (anti-factor IIa), rivaroxaban, and apixaban (anti-Xa) are in advanced phase of clinical development with concluded phase III trials. Up to now the results of efficacy and safety of phase III clinical trials are available, while phase IV studies are currently ongoing. Overall, the phase III clinical trials showed the non inferiority of new oral anticoagulants in VTE prophylaxis of patients undergone to major orthopedic surgery, such as hip and knee arthroplasty, compared to conventional prophylaxis represented by subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin with similar safety. Moreover dabigatran has shown to be not inferior when compared to warfarin for the prevention of six months VTE recurrences, with a significative lower incidence of bleedings. Awaiting the results of many other ongoing phase III trials, since now it is possible to think that, in the next future, new oral anticoagulants will be widely diffused in clinical practice for their ease of use and feasibility. In this review the Authors analyse the available results of phase III clinical trials for dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, focusing on the antithrombotic endpoints for prevention and treatment of VTE and the bleeding risk. Moreover synthesis of ongoing trials will be displayed.

Keywords

Venous thromboembolism; Efficacy; Safety; Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban; Apixaban; Bleeding risk

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