RHC 2022(Suppl 1).html

Reviews in Health Care 2022 (Suppl 1) 3-48


Infectious Diseases and Pediatrics: Back to The Future

A visionary approach from the University of Bologna School of Pediatrics since 1950s

Roberto Manfredi 1, Francesco Chiodo 2, Gian Paolo Salvioli 3

1 Professore associato confermato di Malattie Infettive, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna,

2 Professore Ordinario f.r. di Malattie Infettive, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna

3 Professore Emerito di Pediatria, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna


Like other Italian and European University Centers, also in Bologna the clinics of Infectious Diseases proceeded in parallel with the clinic of Pediatrics with both patient assistance and scientific advancements.

In the middle of the so-called “short century” (1900) some clinical and laboratory activities carried out in Bologna anticipated multiple advancements in both diagnosis and treatment of several, relevant infectious diseases like tuberculosis, influenza, viral diseases like Sars, and also shed light on some inflammatory biomarkers, which will play a key role also in the field of general internal medicine, like C-reactive protein.


Infectious Diseases; Pediatrics; University of Bologna

Corresponding author

Roberto Manfredi

Email: roberto.manfredi@unibo.it

Location and early history

In the Bologna district where the S. Orsola University Hospital had its origin during late XVI century just outside of the main city walls of Porta San Vitale and Porta Maggiore, there was already an area specifically devoted to the assistance of sick children near to the main entrance of the hospital in Massarenti Street, the ancient Roman consular San Vitale Road, linking Bologna with Ravenna.

In the same area, among years 1911 and 1914, the entrance pavilion of the pediatric clinic was builded up and reserved to the care of “Bolognese” children up to the age of 12. Funded thanks to the considerable donations of the countess Gozzadina Gozzadini (1855–1899), and her husband count Zucchini, the historical pavilion had its project performed by the architect Leonida Bertolazzi (1852–1913), whose work was approved on November 15, 1910. The liberty decorations, visible on the facade, are a mastepiece of Alfonso Borghesani (1882-1964). Four sculptures in high relief support the medallions where the following motto is engraved “Charitas Scientia Pro Parvulis” (charity and science for children) [1,2]. The building was completed in the year 1913 [1,2], and had three main floors, with laboratories located in the attic.

During the World War I the pediatric clinic was converted into a military hospital hosting around 10,000 injured and convalescent soldiers. Those hospitalized at the pediatric clinic were called by nationalists “gli aeroplani del Gozzadini” (Gozzadini airplanes), since they had extensive casts on their limbs. Only at the end of the World War I in the year 1923, the same buildings went back to their destiny as a university [1,2].

History and genealogical trees of the schools of pediatrics and infectious diseases: fathers, sons, grandsons, grandchildren, and friends

Initially, the Gozzadini University Hospital was headed by Prof. Carlo Francioni (1877–1929). Later, the pediatric clinic was directed by Prof. Maurizio Pincherle (1929–1949), followed by Prof. Gaetano Salvioli (1938–1964), and Prof. Libero Martoni (1960–1964). The earliest managing secretary was Mrs. Nazzarena Fiorini.

Under the direction of Prof. Gaetano Salvioli, the clinic of Infectious Diseases started its autonomous activity at the S. Orsola University Hospital, headed by Prof. Demos Gotti from 1955 to 1986, and by Prof. Francesco Chiodo from 1986 until June, 2009.

The first full professor and chairman of Infectious Diseases was the Pediatrician Prof. Demos Gotti [3–7], who followed the epic deeds of anti-poliomyelitic vaccines and intensely worked at the antipoliomyelitic centre of the University Pediatric clinic founded by Prof. Gaetano Salvioli in the year 1939 as a regional rehabilitation hub characterized by an early motor activity, in order to avoid all orthopedic damages descending from a prolonged immobilisation of paralytic limbs, and relying on basic exercises with the aid of tapis-roulants, and basic hydrokinesitherapy. This centre deserved a major attention by both pediatricians and orthopedics: in fact, just Bologna hosted a significant international conference on children’ palsy (the term used to define poliomyelitis). This prestigious conference ensured the outstanding participation also Prof. Albert Sabin, the worldwide known scientist who made up his live attenuated oral antipoliomyelitic vaccine (OPV).

In the meantime, the Dept. of Infectious Disease founded at the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna by the legendary Prof. Giuseppe Lenzi, and later guided by Prof. Francesco Maria Gritti (with Dr. Lucio Bonazzi, Dr. Enzo Raise, Dr. Vittorio Vannini, Dr. Alessandro Grillo, Dr. Maria Gabriella Catalini, Dr. Gian Luigi Trenti, Dr. Mario Zini, Dr. Giovanni Inardi, and many others), devoted their major care to adult patient with infectious disorders [8,9].

At the time of Prof. Chiodo’s direction, which started in Autumn 1986, his team included Prof. Edgardo Monari, expert in parasitic and tropical diseases and often leading co-operation projects with some african countries (Zimbabwe and Tanzania among others), with Dr. Maria Assunta Di Bari and Dr. Magda Mazzetti. Prof. Monari was the earliest user of ivermectin oral solution in lymphatic filariasis, and also organized electricity appliances to promote the use of safe water and to provide vaccine refrigeration in African villages. Dr. Maria Assunta Di Bari personally distributed pediatric vaccines in African villages, carefully maintaining the cold chain, where she had daily experience with all tropical and parasitic diseases. Dr. Magda Mazzetti, also worked at the Dept. of the Infectious Diseases of the “Maggiore” Hospital headed by Prof. Fracesco Maria Gritti and in the infection control équipe of the Bologna metropolitan district, directed by Dr. Patrizia Farruggia.

Dr. Gabriella Verucchi became an associate Professor of Infectious Diseases since 2005, and Head of the Postgraduate School of Infectious Disease since 2009. She is specialized in both Pediatrics and Infectious Diseses and is very expert in chronic viral hepatitis (also assessed through abdominal ultrasonography and echography-guided liver biopsy), as well as maternal-fetal infectious diseases, and tropical and travellers’ diseases [3,4,10,11].

Earlier, Prof. Verucchi worked together with Dr. Giancarla Gelati, and during the years 2008–2009 faced both Avian and Swine flu epidemics, also heading the University Dept. of Infectious Diseases since the retirement of Prof. Chiodo in June 2009.

In mid-end 1980s, other staff physicians were Dr. Luisa Dallera and Dr. Annamaria Pezzoli, both specialized in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. The last staff physician who acquired both Infectious diseases and pediatric specialties at the S. Orsola Hospital was Dr. Vincenzo Colangeli [3]. Among residents and attending phisician we also remind Dr. Elena Dalle Donne and Dr. Maria Carla Risi, who later worked at the Public Hygiene Dept. of Bologna, headed by Dr. Anna Rosa Gianninoni after Prof. Antonio Faggioli, who retired in 1999 [12,13].

Since 1985–1986, the growing pressure caused by the mounting cases of HIV and AIDS and chronic hepatitis C (named non-A-non-B hepatitis until year 1989), allowed Prof. Chiodo to expand his physicians’ team, initially with Dr. Paolo Costigliola (also specialist in Hematology), and Dr. Ennio Ricchi (also specialist in Hygiene and Public Health), who dedicated their main efforts to HIV infection clinics and research, and organized all outpatient services for HIV-infected patients, including also informatized databases and informatized outpatients agendas [14-18].

Since December 1990, both Dr. Ginevra Marinacci and Dr. Luciano Attard joined the team, and in mid-September 1991, also Dr. Marco Borderi, Dr. Andrea Boschi, and Dr. Roberto Manfredi were added because of the HIV/AIDS emergency. Dr. Fabio Tumietto [15], earlier interested in Immunology and Laboratory Research, joined Prof. Chiodo’s équipe in 1993, and now leads the Infection Control committee at the S Orsola–Malpighi University Hospital.

Dr. Luciano Attard, initially involved in the care of chronic viral hepatis [3,10,11], is currently responsible for the care of all diffusive and emerging infections, like Zika, Ebola, imported Arboviroses, and Sars–Cov–2, as well as tuberculosis. At the same time, he personally follows patients suffering from fever of unknown origin (FUO), in co-operation with plenty of Italian Rheumatologists, among others.

Dr. Marina Tadolini since the early 2000s became the essential referee for tubercular disease, as she also acts as a permanent consultant of the World Health Organization (WHO) of Geneva, Switzerland, and headed many health care co-operation projects all around the world.

An exceeding valuable informatic support was offered earlier by Dr. Costigliola himself, who already in mid-1980s builded and updated effective databases and agenda applications based on MS–DOS supports [3,14–18], and later Mr. Davide Cocchi and Mr. Andrea Francesconi offered their skilled expertise to many organization and scientific advancements of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases.

The slides for both students and conference presentations were initially prepared by Dr. Manfredi and his collagues, who started with glossy typewritten screens, projected by an overhead lamp.

Later, an expensive DOS-based informatized machine named “Palette” became available, which included a specific camera which directly captured monitor images on a slide film, which required a standard development process, to be finally framed and charged in a carousel for conventional projection.

When considering the nursing personnel, after Mother Luisa Morisi, who upon retirement came back to her Ursuline convent of Rome, and Mother Gabriella, the chief of nurses was Mrs. Cinzia Fabbri, early replaced by Dr. Gianfranco Bocchi, and then by Dr. Antonio Gramegna and Dr. Maria Gabriela Salvucci [17,18]. Mrs. Maria Antonietta Faggioli acted as the Dept. secretary with Mrs. Sandra Pescosi, followed by Mr. Franco Carosella, and presently by Mrs. Caterina D’Errico.

Mrs. Cristina Vincenzi, Mr. Elio Sparano, Mrs. Lorena Roma, Mrs. Rita Verucchi, Mrs. Graziella Alieri, Mrs. Elena Gramantieri, Mr. Angelo Sclafani, Mrs. Maria Naldi, Mr. Franco Draoli, Mrs. Milva Di Girolamo, Mr. Saverio Caruso, Mr. Leonardo Montanari, Mrs Teresa Bartolomei, Mrs. Donatella Rotondo, Mr. Giuseppe Cusmano, Mrs. Giulia Calvano, Mrs. Cinzia Rondelli, Mr. Claudio Nazzurri, Mr. Mariano Virgili and Mr. Pasquale De Luca (both of them earlier studied also Medicine & Surgery), Mrs. Silvia Bolognini, Mr. Francesco Gasparelli, Mrs. Milva De Girolamo, Mrs. Laura Petraglia, Mrs. Evi Cavaliere, Mrs. Patrizia Bartolini, Mrs. Rosa Villani, Dr. Lucia Bertei (graduated in Educational Sciences like Dr. Gianfranco Bocchi), Dr. Morena Fantini (graduated in Sociological Sciences) [18], and Dr. Mariella Fiorino (graduated in Biological sciences), among others, were the pioneers of both inpatients and oupatients assistance in the era of HIV, hepatitis, and intravenous drug abuse, with the daily help of Dr. Germano Pilati, Dr. Salvatore Giancane, and Dr. Chiara Pieri, who also working at the Bologna rehabilitation centres, where all the Infectious Diseases specialists of both S. Orsola and “Maggiore” Hospitals worked as permanent consultants of territorial rehabilitation centres.

Later, other nurses joined the team: Mr. Giuseppe Salvo (who earlier worked at the Dept. of Infectious of Diseases of the “Ospedale di Circolo-Fondazione Macchi” of Varese directed by Prof. Paolo Fiori, and later at the Infectius Diseaseas Dept. of the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna, headed by Prof. Francesco M. Gritti), Mr. Francesco Perotti, Mr. Raffaele Colacelli, Mr. Antonio Giglio, Mrs. Laura Petraglia, Mrs. Giulia Razza, Mr. Moreno Chiarini, Mr. Cristofaro Violante, Mr. Alessandro Gamberini, Mrs. Milva De Girolamo, Mrs. Teresa Di Milta. Mrs.Simona Varani, Mrs. Jolanda Burzacca, Mr. Luigi Marfella, Mrs. Anna Mignani, Mr. Domenico Perna, Mrs. Cinzia Ruscelli, Mrs. Cinzia Zen, Mrs. Evelina Ragonici, Mrs. Luana Tonelli, Mrs. Marzia Luciani, Mrs. Teresa Di Milta, Mrs. Luana Tonelli, Mrs. Patrizia Meliconi, Mrs. Giovanna Monaru, Mrs. Annalisa Franzoni, Mr. Mauro Bavota, Mrs. Barbara Di Marino, Mrs. Elena Minelli, Mr. Lamberto Mazzanti, Mrs. Rita Pesci, Mrs. Manuela Galassi, Mr. Fiorenzo Bai, Mr. Guido Santandrea, Mrs. Sara Crabu, Mr. Giuseppe Zerbini, Mrs. Margherita Marras, Mrs. Daniela Ugolotti, Mrs. Maddalena Boni, Mrs. Paola Ravaglia, Mrs. Rachele Farsetti, Mrs. Rita Malservisi, Mrs. Francesca La Via, Mrs. Catia Pace, Mr. Domenico Coviello, Mrs. Orietta Squerzanti, Mrs. Daniela Franco, Mrs. Monia Calanchi, Mrs. Concetta Rustico, Mr. Domenico Perna, Mrs. Sabrina Cortesi, Mrs. Mara Riccio, Mr. Luigi Marfella, Mrs. Paola Moriani, Mrs. Stefania Serra, Mrs. Adriana Ori, Mr. Carlo Ravagli, Mrs. Franca Giusti, Mrs. Morena Buferli, Mrs. Iginia Gualmini, Mrs.Elisa Grumelli, Dr. Barbara Sofritti (graduated in Nursing Sciences), Mrs. Angela Basetti, Mrs. Maria Lombardi, Mrs.Anna Palma Cannarile, Mrs. Manuela Marchetti, Mrs. Monica Chiericati, Mr. Felice Mattia Barletta, Mrs. Francesca Roda, Mrs. Maria Cristina Pieri, Mrs. Valeria Cesari, Mrs. Ermelinda Costantini, Mr. Stefano Barbieri, Mr. Carmine Nacca, Mr. Stanislao Moccia, Mr. Vincenzo Indelicato and Mr. Eligio Pirrone (both from the “Semeiotica Medica” Dept. of the S. Orsola Hospital), Dr. Paolo Boldini (graduated in Medicine & Surgery) and Mrs. Maria Grazia Martinelli, Mrs. Paola Tanaglia, Mrs. Catia Aldrovandi, Mrs. Giovanna Donati, Mrs. Sonia Pecorari, Mrs. Lisa Savini, Mrs. Serena Caselli, and Mr. Andrea Bovinelli, Mr. Sabrina Cavallini, Mr. Tommaso Caronia Angitta, Mr. Luigi D’Isernia, Mrs. Loredana Cuzzani and Mrs. Tullia Cerutti among many others, joined the équipe: several of them since mid–2002, as a consequence of the merging of both medical and nursing teams of “Maggiore”, and S. Orsola Hospital at the S. Orsola Dept. of Infectious Diseases, after the retirement of Prof. Gritti, at the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna, Mrs. Wilma Dall’Oro acted as the Chief of Nurses, after Mother Evelina, Mother Gaetana Da Mattei, and Mother Maria Adelaide Ambrosi.

In the nursing team of the integrated HIV/AIDS home service and Home Centre (Centro Casa), Mrs. Nadiolina Assueri and Mrs. Angelica Palladino, gave their excellent support.

At the concierge at service Mrs. Maria Gamberini accepted patients and relatives for both inpatient and outpatient services, followed by Mr. Carmelo (Umberto) Greco and Mrs. Carmela Triolo. At the outpatient acceptance office, Mrs. Franca Fiorini was followed by Mrs. Eleonora Rocca, and later by Mrs. Nunzia Pizarra.

When assessing Pharma companies which co-operated with the University Dept. of Infecious Diseases, we are extremely grateful to: Dr. Michelangelo Simonelli, Dr. Maria Pia Ruffilli, Dr. Massimo Scaccabarozzi, Dr. Sofia La Face, Dr. Giampaolo Pizzarelli, Dr. Stefano Tagliavini, Dr. Vittorio Trevisani, Dr. Giuseppe Zamparo, Dr. Filippo Lorenzo Lodi, Dr. Gianluca Guitti, Dr. Leonardo Zanella, Dr. Enzo Sacchet, Dr. Giovanni Pirazzini, Dr. Andrea Atti, Dr. Cinzia Francesca Dursi, Dr. Angela Pelliconi, Dr. Anna Maria Passoni, Dr. Monica Furlaro, Dr. Federico Pallara, Dr. Massimo Zaccardi, Dr. Achille Metsios, Dr. Stefano Colombi, Dr. Giuseppe Forestieri, Dr. Franco Michelini, Dr. Ivan Di Schiena, Dr. Gianfranco Rocca, Dr. Pier Luigi Ariatti, Dr. Oriano Bonetti, Dr. Costantino Karagiannakos, Dr. Carlotta Tosi, Dr. Cristina Bandini, Dr. Stefano Stefani, Dr. Emanuele Tumminelli, Dr. Francesco Gagliardi , Dr. Vittorio Luxardo, Dr. Marco Bolognesi, Dr. Michele Badolato Dr.Simona Bonafé, Dr. Paolo Carnemolla, Dr. Luca Carlucci, Dr. Antonio Russo, Dr. Stefania Nicastro, Dr. Valentina Anfossi, Dr. Gianni Morselli, Dr. Giacomo Baroni, Dr. Manuela Lazzarin, Dr. Sara Ciampin, Dr. Stefano Valente, Dr. Erika Federici, Dr. Marco Peracchi, Dr. Monica Bellini, Dr. Renata Mazzuchelli, Dr. Franco Dallavena,Dr. Marco Guizzardi, Dr. Michele Bertolini, Dr. Andrea Ippazio Russo, Dr Leonardo Zanella, Dr. Fabio Latini, Dr. Luisa Nichelatti, Dr. Cristina Bandini, Dr. Carlotta Tosi, Dr. Mario Micalizzi, Dr. Amedeo Enrico, Dr. Claudio Micozzi, Dr. Patrizia Francario, Dr. Marcello Romeo, Dr. Marco Marchetti, Dr. Claudio Gazzola, Dr. Ivano Baldini, Dr. Gianni Foglianti, Dr. Michele Margotti, Dr. Elisabetta Mengoli, Dr. Martino Alfredo Scalzo, Dr. Maurizio Orsini, Dr. Vincenzo Balzani, Dr. Luigi Marfella, Dr. Anna Mignani, Dr. Domenico Perna, Dr. Renato Siviero, Dr. Pietro Vescia, Dr. Murizio Orsini, Dr. Roberta Boscagli, Dr. Caudio Micozzi, Dr. Marcello Mancini, Dr. Susanna Pruni, Dr. Leonardo Busi, Dr. Sonia Fabbri, Dr. Demetrio Camilli, Dr. Guido Filippi, Dr. Paolo Anelli, Dr. Giuseppe Burgio, Dr. Dante Molinari, Dr. Roberto La Ferla, Dr. Lisa Franceschini, Dr. Ettore Travaglione, Dr. Orazio Ravaglia, Dr. Mario Serritelli.

In the meantime, also Dr. Antonio Mastroianni [19, 20], presently head of the Infectious Diseases Dept. of the SS. Annunziata Hospital of Cosenza, largely contributed to all scientific activities, especially in the field of HIV/AIDS, together with Dr. Olga Viviana Coronado Villagarcìa [19, 20], now working at the “Maggiore” and “Bellaria” Hospitals of Bologna. Togeher wih Dr. Giovanni Rezza fom the Italian National Institute of Health– “Istituto Superiore di Sanità” of Rome, and together with Dr. Victor Coronado of the US Center of Diasese Control and prevention (CDC), of Atlanta. GA, US), Dr. Manfredi investigated relevant epidemiological issues of AIDS-related opportunism [20].

Also, with the “Istituto Superiore di Sanità–ISS”, Dr. Manfredi was involved in multiple clinical studies predominantly regarding HIV and HCV treatment with the novel available antiviral molecules (i.e, ISS–IP1 and ISS–IP2, among many others) [21–23].

In early June 2002, Prof. Francesco Maria Gritti, the head of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases located at the “Maggiore” Hospital and mainly devoted to the care of adult infectios diseases [8, 9] retired from clinical activity, and most of his staff merged with that of the S. Orsola Infectious Diseses clinic. Among them, Dr. Sergio Sabbatani, Dr. Gaetano Di Giandomenico, Dr. Giovanni Fasulo, Dr. Nicola Dentale, Dr. Giorgio Legnani, Dr. Ciro Fulgaro, and Dr. Luca Guerra, who actively contributed to both health care and scientific progress of the Infectious Diseases clinic in the last two decades. Later, Dr. Leonardo Calza, called as an associate Professor of Infectious Diseases since 2014, increased the scientific activity especially in the field of HIV/AIDS, and emerging infectious diseases [24–26].

In the meantime. Dr. Sergio Sabbatani focused his attention on HIV/AIDS [27,28], tuberculosis, antimicrobial treatment [29], and also on emerging parasitic diseases like malaria, as well as the history of infectious diseases as a whole, from ancient times up to the XX century and beyond [29–39].

Dr. Filippo Fabio Trapani and Alessandra Cascavilla were the last “sons” of Prof. Chiodo, who received their graduation and successfully performed their residency at the S. Orsola Dept. of Infectious Diseases, like Dr. Salvatore Talò and Dr. Lorenza Fortunato, who work since several years at the Emergency Dept. of the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna.

After them, only the “Sunset Boulevard” remains for the University Dept. of Infectious Diseases.

But the main interests of the Infectious Diseases clinics of the S. Orsola Hospital had already moved towards the emerging infectious diseases of adults, like HIV/AIDS, chronic viral hepatits, tuberculosis, and tropical medicine, while the emergence of antibiotic resistance was faced with the continued co-operation with the Microbiology Institute of our School of Medicine & Surgery, formerly headed by the legendary Prof. Michele La Placa [40–42], who moved his Institution from the University district of S. Giacomo Steeet into the S. Orsola Hospital (to increase both scientific and clinical activities), and published the monumental textbook of Microbiology which proved a reference for several generations of students and residents [42].

Later, the University Dept. of Microbiology was headed by Prof. Maria Paola Landini, who also became dean of the Medicine and Surgery School of Medicine, and later Scientific Director of the Rizzoli University Orthopedic Hospital.

In the same environment, Prof. Maria Luisa Zerbini, Prof. Monica Musiani and Prof. Roberto Cevenini strongly contributed with their pivotal virological and bacteriological studies also devoted to atypical respiratory and uro-genital bacteria [43], together with Prof. Maria Carla Re [41], who developed all diagnostic assays for the management of HIV and hepatitis infections together with Dr. Giuliano Furlini.

Prof. Giorgio Gallinella is highly interested in both Parvovirus and Papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and is presently a full Professor of Microbiology at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Bologna [43], where also Prof. Aldo Mazzoni and Prof. Giovanna Gentilomi worked.

Prof. Stefania Varani, starting from her research on Cytomegalovirus and all Herpesvirinae with Prof. Landini and Prof. Tiziana Lazzarotto [44, 45], while presently she is exceedingly focused on both virology and parasitology, throught innovative molecular biology techniques.

Prof. Vittorio Sambri (who founded the regional reference centre for Microbiological Emergencies (CREEM), where Dr Paolo Gaibani and Dr. Caterina Vocale actively work, among others), later became head of the Microbiology Dept. of the greater Romagna region, and is strongly engaged in the fight against Covid, also in the stomatological environment [46].

Prof. Davide Gibellini is strongly interested in Retrovirology, and now works at the University of Verona [43].

In the area of HIV/AIDS, together with Prof. M. C. Re, Prof. IsabellaBon offers an extremely valuable clinical and scientific support, exploring the virological features of HIV infection in all its aspects, including HIV tropism, antiretroviral resistance testing, and antiretroviral drug toxicity [47].

In the field of opportunistic infections caused by Herpesvirinae, Prof. Tiziana Lazzarotto leaded extensive research on Cytomegalovirus (CMV) [44, 45], and explored the mechanisms of resistance to anti-CMV antivirals, too, becoming an international chairwoman and referee for these virological issues [44, 45]. She also teaches Microbiology to the students at the University of Bologna School of Dentistry, together with Prof. Claudio Foschi [48].

Prof. Paola Dal Monte has been responsible for many years of the dedicated mycobacteriology laboratory, where antitubercular drug resistance is also tested, and the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) testing, has been performed since ever [49].

Prof. Marcello Gatti, also expert in Parasitology, was resposible of a detached branch of the Dept. of Microbiology at the University of Bologna Odontoiatric Clinic, in S. Vitale Street.

In the same microbiological environment, the emerging invasive fungal infections in the immunocompromised hosts were faced thanks to the careful attention of Prof. Anna Nanetti and Prof. Aldo Mazzoni [50–52], who was also engaged in bioethics until his death, occurred in the year 2007 [52]. As Prof. Mazzoni, also Prof. Pierluigi Lenzi, an engineer also graduated in Medicine & Surgery who teached Physics and Medical Physiology to Medicine & Surgery students at the Bologna University, later in his career was interested in bioethical issues.

On the other hand, another very fruitful co-operation on sexually transmitted infections (STD), was carried out with the clever help of Prof. Antonietta D’Antuono and Prof. Valeria Gaspari of the University Dermatology Clinic [53], and that of Prof. Luciano Bovicelli and Dr. Brunella Guerra, who were part of the University Dept. of Obstetrics since the first occurrences of maternal-fetal HIV infections the year 1986 [54]. At the same Obstetrics Dept., Prof. Gianluigi Pilu became the Director, after Prof. Nicola Rizzo.

Dr. Roberto Manfredi, whose first scholarly publication of the year 1986 regarded neonatal sepsis [55], was called as an associate Professor of Infectious Disease by the Dean of the University of Bologna School of Medicine Prof. Maria Paola Landini, since 2005. Later, Dr. Manfredi covered all ethiological, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive issues of all bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic diseases, in all patients’ ages spanning from neonates to the elderly, with special attention devoted to HIV/AIDS subspecialty and antimicrobial treatment, even including psychological, sociological, educational, and bioethical issues [56–59].

After contributing to many monographs, book chapters, and conference proceedings of both Infectious Diseases and Pediatrics [60–83], Dr. Manfredi was interested in emerging infectious diseases like avian flu [84], prion diseases [85, 86], bartonellosis [87, 88], and cytomegalovirosis in both otherwise healthy individuals with fever of unknown origin [89], and in the immuocompromised host [44, 45, 90].

His versatility allowed Dr. Manfredi to maintain an active interest for infections of the extreme life ages, from neonates [4, 55, 67, 77], up to the elderly [58, 78–83, 91].

The main interest of Prof. Manfredi remained on HIV infection evaluated in all the different ages, with particular attention paid to congenital infections, its natural history, complications, prevention, and management, including salvage anti-HIV treatment [56, 65, 67, 70–72, 91–95].

Main research fields were also laboratory issues in the evolving clinical features [96], HIV and ageing [83, 91, 97–100], including the role of soluble markers of inflammation leaded by Prof. Calza with Dr. Roberto Motta, head of the Metropolitan Laboratory Dept. of Bologna [100–102], demonstrated the increased risk of myocardial infarction and other life-threatening cerebral-vascular events in HIV-infected patients treated with a protease inhibitor-based anti-HIV therapy [103].

During time, the increasing co-infections and comorbidities, and the toxicity of the same antiretroviral regimens and their associations, as well as their direct and indirect adverse events were also carefully examined [56, 59, 92–95, 97,103–113].

The pill burden with the related adherence problems [56, 57–59], and HIV-HCV-hepatitis co-infection were always focused, with adverse events of interferons [10, 114, 115].

All available antiretroviral treatments were assesed as soon as possible, starting with the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) zidovidine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamividine, tenofovir and abacavir [116, 117], continuing with the earlier non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) [118], later with protease inhibitors [56, 91–94, 97–113], and finally with enfuvirtide [27], maraviroc, and integrase inhibitors [21–23, 27, 119, 120].

The strong HIV-cancer association was also investigated [56, 121–128].

Particular features of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy were also studied and commented extensively, as well as the direct and indirect effects produced by “alternative” treatments for HIV disease [129], and the “alternative” adherence to anti-HIV therapy [130]. The natural history of HIV infection was also assessed in the very infrequent long-term non-progressors or èlite controllers [131]. The mode of reporting extensive multicentre intercohort worldwide studies was also commented [132].

Other viral infections were carefully considered, like measles and infectious mononucleosis [133], Parvovirosis [134, 135], and especially chickenpox in infants, which deserved an Italian national multicentre study aimed to check its natural history, the role of antiviral treatment in sick children and household contacts, and its possible complications [136–140].

When attending the Dept. of Pediatrics of the “Ospedale per gli Infermi” of Faenza (RA), Dr. Manfredi co-operated to several studies, also involving infectious diseases [141–146].

Coming back to Bologna, together with Prof. Chiodo, Dr. Manfredi was engaged in the introductionof a novel recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhuGM-CSF) [147], which was succesfully employed in both pediatric and adult patients to potentiate antimicrobial chemotherapy, especially in the imnmuncompromised host, as also demonstrated by laboratory studies [148, 149]. Concurrently, a regional comparative study regarding the use of parenteral and oral beta-lactamases plus beta-lactamase inhibitors was assesed in the lower respiratory tract infections of both children and adults [150, 151]. Another Italian national trial compared azithromycin with erythromycin in pediatric respiratory infections [152].

At the S. Orsola University Hospital, together with Prof. Anna Nanetti, Prof. Manfredi actively monitorized all antimicrobial isolates from the different clinical specimens and their evolving antimicrobial susceptibility profile for over two decades [153].

After investigating tuberculosis and its pathomorphism [154], Prof. Manfredi was also interested to atypical mycobacteria in immunocompromised patients [155, 156].

All bacterial infections and the novel antibacterial molecules were evaluated over time [29,157–167].

All sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were carefully assessed also in adolescents and teenagers, together with their differential diagnosis and their atypical presentations [53,168–173].

Hepatitis A was fully recognized as a STD [174], while the life-threatening potential of HBV was underlined in all patients taking immunosoppressive agents [175].

HHV-8 infection was found and specifically treated in solid organ transplant recipients [176].

Fungal infections and antimycotic treatment and prophylaxis represented a major focus of clinical and scientific activity [19, 20, 177–187].

Tropical and imported infections were always considered the greatest attention [188, 189], as well as febrile neutropenia in all its causes and presentations [190], autoimune disorders [191], and the rare but engaging primary immunodeficiencies [192].

Large epidemiological studies on both adults and children exposed to infectious diseases were performed thanks to the valuable support of Prof. Elena Baldi, the Professor of Statistics of the Medicine& Surgery School of Medicine of th Univerisity of Bologna [193–195].

Several population pharmacoecomics issues in all field of Infectious Diseases were also successfully carried out [196–200].

Finally, Prof. Manfredi was engaged in some Italian and International literature reviews and comments mostly regarding Medicine and Infectious Diseases, starting from the Middle Ages until the XX century [201–207].

Working as a fellow and resident, Roberto Manfredi first explored some laboratory issues related to secondary immunodeficiencies at the main laboratory of the S. Orsola University Hospital directed by Dr. Paola Boni after Dr. Giuseppe Sprovieri, working aside with Dr. Onda Cappelletti, later had a more autonomous role in evaluating peripheral lymphocyte subsets at the laboratory facilities with a flow cytometry available at the Dept. of Infectious Diseases, where also multiple parasitology studies were performed thanks to the strong experience of Dr. Maria Assunta Di Bari. From stored frozen serum specimens of the Infectious Diseases laboratory, the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and that of HCV infection were restrospectively estimated in 1989 [10,11,15,16], when specific immunoenzymatic (ELISA) assays became available, by relying on a fully manual technique. The seroprevalence of both Mycoplama and Chlamydia pneumoniae among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was retrospectively searched, in cooperation with the team of Prof. Roberto Cevenini at the Microbiology University Dept. [208].

At the main laboratory of the S. Orsola Hospital, Roberto Manfredi met Dr. Gabriele Grossi, a pioneer of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), later developed by Dr. Matteo Conti in the field of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of all antimicrobial agents, including antiretrovirals. Concurrently, Dr. Angela Guariento and Dr. Maria Grazia Silvestri gave their valuable help to some studies focused on hematological toxicity of zidovudine, the first approved antiretroviral drug since 1985. This work was conducted by photographing the written output of the cytometric machine which showed reelevant differences in the erythrocyte mean cellular volume (MCV), according to the ongoing treatment with zidovudine [209].

During his residency in the United States during Summer 1991, Roberto Manfredi attended a stage at the Dept. of Pediatrics of the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry headed by Prof. Rafael Dolin (one of the main editors of the “Bible” of Infectious Diseases specialists: Mandell-Douglas-Dolin). In this clinical and research centre, the Pediatrician and Researcher Prof. Francis Gigliotti worked at a candidate vaccine against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in an animal model represented by steroid-immunosuppressed ferrets, and relying on gel electrophoresis techniques carried out on frozen animal and human pulmonary specimens [210].

Later, Dr.Manfredi joined some research projects dealing with a passive immunization against HIV infection, carried out in a collaborative group from Belgrade, London, and Trieste: hundreds of frozen sera have been carefully fowarded abroad for these studies, with Dr. Katia Fiorini as the major collaborator in Bologna [211], while Dr. Barbara Farneti largely co-operared to an Italian national project on liver transplantation in HIV-infected patients (progetto HOST – HIV Organ Sharing & Transplantation”, leaded by Dr. Paolo Costigliola.

Among his multiple activities, Prof. Chiodo also founded the Emilia-Romagna section of the Italian Association for the fight against AIDS (ANLAIDS), and heralded all servces for an integrated home assistance of HIV-infected patiens, and also inaugurated the first home lodging “casa alloggio”, and home services (“Centro Casa” for AIDS patient), initially located in downtown Bologna (Irnerio and S. Isaia streets), and later in Sala Bolognese.

These health care and social services had been initally guided by Dr. Elda Caldari (specialist in Infectious Disease), and later supported by Dr. Dario Bragadin, and had got a specifical medical and nursing staff, recruited from both S. Orsola and “Maggiore” Infectious Diseases équipes.

But the major caretaker of the entire history on the Medical School of the University of Bologna, the oldest Academic School of the Western world being founded by the legendary friar Irnerio in the year 1088, as evoked by the poet Giosuè Carducci when he acted as the University Rector in the year 1888. After Prof. Raffaele Alberto Bernabeo [212], the present Professor of Medicine History is Stefano Arieti [213], who teaches History of Medicine at many graduate and posgraduate courses of the University of Bologna, holds the oldest medical library of Bologna located in courtyard of the Archiginnasio Palace in downtown Bologna, and leads the “Società Medica Chirurgica of Bologna”, which publishes the oldest Italian medical journal named “Bollettino delle Scienze Mediche”, founded and published since the year 1829, which also hosts all histories and memories of the Bolognese “Maestri” of Medicine and Surgery [3].

The pioneers of laboratory and clinical studies of pediatric infectious diseases, and their followers

since mid-1950s, every pavilion of the S. Orsola University Hospital had got its own laboratory facilities, for both assistential and research needs.

Although most laboratory analyses were carried out with homemade facilities and with totally hand-managed instruments and reagents, this objectively difficult and really primordial situation did not hamper the research committment of the young physicians who populated the laboratories of the clinic, located under the roof of the present entrance pavilion.

First of all, the attention of Prof. Corsini and his researchers was focused on some chemical chemistry and biochemistry issues [214–217].

Prof. Franco Corsini, who headed the Pediatric Laboratory in the 1950s, expanded his interest to cover the study of blood proteins during acute leukemia [218], and was the first scientist to use personal computer (PC) and to teach Medicine students methematics and statistics in the 1980s when this teaching was temporarily vacant at the Bologna School of Medicine & Surgery. Later, blood malignancies of children will be studied and treated by Prof. Guido Paolucci, who performed the first bone marrow transplantation with his research group including Dr. Pasquale Rosito, Dr. Antonia F. Mancini and Dr. Vico Vecchi [219, 220], who later directed the Dept. of Pediatric of the Ospedale degli Infermi of Rimini.

Recently, the clinical and research group especially devoted to pediatric oncohematology has been leaded by Prof. Andrea Pession and his excellent coworkers, with Dr. Roberto Rondelli and Dr. Arcangelo Prete, among many others [219, 220]. Mrs. Francesca Predieri helds the Secretariat.

In the meantime, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography allowed a series of studies on the composition of blood cell membranes in healthy children [221], and later in young patients with rheumatological disorders [222], and dysmetabolic diseases [223–225].

After the early laboratory studies [224], Prof. Emanuele Cacciari and his university team: Prof. Alessandro Cicognani, Prof. Laura Mazzanti (especially interested in rare pediatric diseases), Prof. Silvana Salardi (especially involved in the management of pediatric diabetes mellitus), Prof. Franco Zappulla (who published the nomograms of arterial blood pressure in children and adolescents),and Prof. Paola Tassoni, Prof. Piero Pirazzoli, Prof. Antonio Balsamo, Prof. Alessandra Cassio, Dr. Stefano Zucchini and their excellent co-workers, conducted extensive auxological and endocrinological studies also involving the use of biosinthetic growth hormone [226–228] in children with short stature, which seems to sustain also phagocyte and cell-mediated immune response [229].

Together with Prof. Vittorio Bonomini and Prof. Alba Vangelista, Prof. Raffaella Tazzari focused her interest on pediatric Nephrology also including acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and was actively engaged in the management of immigrated and adopted children [227, 230]. She was followed by Dr. Andrea Pasini, who also expanded his interest towards pediatric dialysis.

Concurrently, Prof. Angela Beccari together with Prof. B. Rondinini, Dr. Vittorio Attard and many Collegues also working at the Italian National Program “Opera Nationale Maternità ed Infanzia” (ONMI) of Bologna, investigated many aspects of Laboratory and Clinical Pediatrics [231–239].

At the direction of the Dept. of Pediatric Emergency, some years after Prof. Filippo Bernardi [49], Prof. Marcello Lanari [240–242] came back to Bologna after directing the Dept. of Pediatrics of the “S. Maria della Scaletta” Hospital of Imola (BO), previously headed by Prof. Livio Comellini [243–245], another “son” of the S. Orsola University School of Pediatrics, like Prof. Domenico Mazzacuva [246]. At the Imola Dept. of Pediatrics, also Dr. Francesco Baldi actively worked. Dr. Salvatore Cazzato, a “son” of Prof. Bernardi presently heads a section of the “Giuseppe Salesi” Children’ Hospital of Ancona, specifically devoted to the care of acute respiratory diseases [49].

Prof. Marcello Lanari has been strongly engaged since ever against acute pediatric infecious diseases, tubeeculosis, and Covid-19 [240–242].

Dr. Angela Miniaci matured an extensive experience in pediatric rheumatology and is now a national reference in this field [247].

Prof. Giampaolo Ricci enforced a continued and very valuble co-operation with the University Dermatology Dept., where all children with skin-mucous allergic disorders and infectious complications are evaluated by the Director Prof. Annalisa Patrizi (which followed Prof. Antonella Tosti), together with Dr. Iria Neri and Prof. Bianca Maria Piraccini [248–253].

In the same Dermatology clinic, the valuable histopathology research started under the direction of Prof. Claudio Varotti and was continued by Prof. Beatrice Passarini [250], and at last by Dr. Cosimo Misciali, who also followed Prof. Negosanti in implementing a service devoted to the care of “open” cutaneous lesions, which has its dedicated nursing staff.

Prof. Massimo Negosanti actively contributes to all aspects of cutaneous and venereal diseases [248,249], leaded the inpatient Division of Dermatology of the S. Orsola Hospital, and teached Dermatology and Venereology for at least three decades, including students of the Bologna School of Dentistry. Later, Prof. Emi Dika, who also teaches at the University School of Dentistry [251], and Prof. Michelangelo La Placa, together with Prof. Valeria Gaspari and their teams also including specialized nurses, continued their fruitful engagement in both clinical and scientific aspects of Dermatology and Venereology, with particolar attention focused just on children [252, 253].

At the same University Dept. of. Dermatology, Dr. Federico Bardazzi put his long-term expertise on psoriasis also assessing HIV-infected patiens, who are more frequently interested by this immune-mediated disorder. He also headed multicentre studies on biological therapies in patients living with HIV [254].

Presently, at the large University Departments of Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency of the University of Bologna, Dr. Fraia Melchionda and Dr. Ilaria Corsini are highly involved in the management of all acute and chronic infectious and tropical diseases [240–242], while Dr. Arcangelo Prete and Dr. Roberto Rondelli among many others, attend to the prevention and management of infectious complications in the immunocompromised children with malignancies [219, 220].

At the University of Bologna School of Dentistry located in S. Vitale street, whose Prof. Lucio Montebugnoli is the Director after Prof. Carlo Prati and after Giorgio Borea (who encouraged the erliest stomatological studies on HIV-infected patients) [255], Prof. Gabriela Piana teaches Pediatric Dentistry since over three decades, posing her careful attention to children with chromosomal disorders and other special needs [256], usually seen upon birth by Prof. Guido Cocchi and coworkers, at the Neonatology Dept. of the S. Orsola Hospital. Dr. Roberto Manfredi joined the same teaching team since 2005, whe he “jumped” from hist his hospital engagements to the University ones, after becoming an associate professor of Infectious Diseases, and teached Infectious Diseases to Dentistry students among others. He has been also interested in the occupational risk of the dentistry environment [257, 258].

Concurrently, the University Dept. of Hygiene early leaded Prof. Pierluigi Bisbini, later by Prof. Erica Leoni, Prof. Pier Paolo Legnani and Prof. Laura Dallolio, and subsequently by Prof. Maria Pia Fantini and coworkers, provided a continued, excellent support to enforce public health structures, also during local infectious diseases outbreaks and pandemics, in co-operation with all University, Hospital and territorial Depts. Of Microbiology, Pediatrics, and Hygiene, and keeping a strict link with all pediatricians of the whole Bologna metropolitan area, also considering the recent Covid-19 pandemic [240–242, 259]. Dr. Antonio Faggioli, followed in the year 1999 by Dr. Anna Rosa Gianninoni, directed the public Hygiene office of the Bologna metropolitan district [12, 13].

From the same Dept. of Hygiene and Public Health also Dr. Gianfranco Finzi and Prof. Paolo Cacciari started their career, which led Dr. Finzi to cover the position of President of the Italian National Association of Hospital Medical Hospital Directors (“Associazione Nazionale Medici Direz/ioni Opedaliere – ANMDO”), located in Bologna, and Prof. Paolo Cacciari to become the general manager of the S. Orsola Hospital, after the legendary Prof. Mario Zanetti.

The S. Orsola Hospital Pharmacy played an essential role in approving clinical trials and in providing novel medications and diagnostic assays. It has been formerly directed by Dr. Antonino Raitano, and later by Dr. Cristina Puggioli, together with Dr. Marta Morotti, Dr. Paola Fiacchi and Dr. Roberto Romagnoli. Dr. Primoz Juric was responsible for clinical trials. Under the growing pressure of outpatient services in the field of HIV, chronic hepatitis and tuberculosis, a detached section of the Hospital Pharmacy was open at the Infectious Diseases Pavilion, for both distribution and accountability of all antimicrobial agents and other drugs directly available though the Italian National Healh Care system (SSN). Dr. Lucia Appolloni, together with Dr. Filomena Piro, Dr. Giulia Pensalfine, Dr. Federica Locchi and many other colleagues, directly cooperate day by day with all outpatient services of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases since over three decades [260].

Infectious risks and needed prophylactic measures of patients undergoing solid organ transplantation were evaluted by Dr. Manfredi and Dr. Ginevra Marinacci, who conceived a dedicated outpatient service named “Ambulatorio Integrato” [261], after creating the Day-Hospital service with Dr. Ricchi, for AIDS patients who needed aerosolized pentamidine as a prophylaxis of pneumocystosis, and any kind of antimicrobial or antineoplastic treatment for all opportunistic AIDS-related disorders [17, 18].

At the University Dept. of Pharmacology located in Irnerio Street and initially directed by Prof. Nicola Montanaro, Dr. Nicola Magrini started his career which led him up to the direction of the Italian Agency of Drugs (AIFA). The same Dept. was attended by Dr. Roberto Manfredi when he was an Infectious Diseases resident.

At the S. Orsola University Hospital, Dr. Manfredi was part of the local committee for the antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery, together with Dr. Anna Maria Marata of the S. Orsola Dept. of Pharmacology directed by Prof. Ettore Ambrosioni, and with Prof. Anna Nanetti from the Microbiogy Dept. Dr. Gabriela Sangiorgi from the main ICU, Dr. Nazareno Manoni of the general Hospital direction, the designated members of the S. Orsola Hospital Pharmacy, and all general and specialistic surgeons, who met every Wednesday afternoon during many months, until the release of these guidelines [262].

Dr. Manfredi also joined Dr. Giovanni Grillone, Dr. Iolter Cattabriga and colleagues, at the specialized cardiological, Cardiac Surgery, and Vascular Surgery ICU Dept. of the S. Orsola Hospital [263].

At the Rizzoli Orthopedic Research center, Dr. Manfredi also attended the laboratory of experimental surgery leaded by Prof. Roberto Giardino [264], and the laboratory of Immunology and biomaterials directed by Prof. Andrea Facchini with Prof. Erminia Mariani, with their skilled coworkers [265].

Dr. Manfredi also acted as a member of the infection control program at the Rizzoli University Orthopedic Hospital, where he also studied antibiotic-loaded cements with Prof. Armando Giunti, Dr. Laura Campanacci, and Dr. Alessandra Sudanese [266].

At the same Rizzoli Orthopedic Hospital, Dr. Onofrio Donzelli directed the dedicated pediatric section (the former “Ottava Divisione”), mainly dealing with congenital abnormalities of bone and joints, and also bone cancer treatment.

Together with Dr. Cristina Martelli and Dr Calogero Alfonso, Dr. Manfredi was engaged in the infection control at the Dept. of Orthopedics of the S. Orsola Hospital, directed by Prof. Massimo Laus [267, 268].

In the year 1991, an extensive regional survey was conducted by Dr. Manfredi trough the Dept.of Pediatrics of the whole Emilia-Romagna region, to assess infectious diseases issues in both immigrated and adopted children. The Regional Juvenile Court of Bologna was also envolved in providing essential figures [269, 270].

In the year 1995, Dr. Manfredi also leaded research about the resort to social assistance institutions by patients living with HIV infection, with the co-operation of the Italian National Welfare Office—INPS (Istituto Nazionale Previdenza Sociale) [271].

In the year 1991 together with Dr. Laura Folesani and other primary care and Public Health Pediatricians of Faenza, Dr. Roberto Manfredi validated and updated the guidelines for a correct diagnosis, treatment, and active of prevention of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. [272].

Together with Dr. Giuseppe Spinnato, Dr. Donato Zocchi, Dr. Mario Monti of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna [8, 9], and many primary care physicians, he wrote and updateded the guidelines of antimicrobial chemotherapy of adult patients for the Bologna metropolitan area, from the year 2000 up to the year 2004 (Commissione Linee-Guida, Indicatori, Farmacovigilanza—CLIFF).

Together with Dr Victor Coronado from the US centers for Disases control and Prevention (CDC), and with the aid of Dr. Gianni Rezza of the Italian National “Istituto Superiore della Sanità” of Rome, Dr. Manfredi explored some epidemiological issues of AIDS related opportunism [19].

Dr. Manfredi continuously co-operated with the Italian National Health Institute (Istituto Superiore di Sanità—ISS), especially with Dr. Stefano Vella, Dr. Giovanni Rezza, Dr. Liliana Elena

Weimer, Dr. Raffaella Bucciardini, Dr. Vincenzo Fragola, Dr. Mauro Andreotti among many others, particularly with studies around HIV and HCV infections. [20–22]

At the Histopathology Dept., necropsy examinations were carefully performed without particular fear for infectious diseases by Prof. Paolo Scarani [273], who later cured the permanent exhibition of the University Museum “Luigi Cattaneo” devoted to anatomic waxes, located in the Bologna University District of Via Irnerio. Prof. Anton Maria Mancini, Prof. Alessandro Piccaluga, Prof. Giuseppe Nicola Martinelli, Prof. Franco Walter Grigioni and Prof Antonia D’Errico, together with Prof. Gian Andrea Pasquinelli [274–275], Prof. Michelangelo Fiorentino, Dr. Donatella Santini, Dr. Giulia Alampi, Dr. Nunzio Salfi, Dr. Ornella Leone, Dr. Umberto Gianelli [276], Dr. Maria Letizia Prosperi, Dr. Maria Lucia Tardio, Dr. Giulio Fraternali Orcioni [277] and Dr. Benedetta Fabrizio [278], among many others, offered an excellent feedback in terms of histopathogical diagnosis of many opportunistic infections and malignancies especially in HIV/AIDS patients. Prof. Stefano A. Pileri posed his international expertise at the service of lymphopathology and much more [279, 280], followed by Dr. Elena Sabattini.

At the Hematology/Oncology Dept of the Bologna University founded by Prof. Sante Tura from Faenza, Prof. Pierluigi Zinzani, Prof. Giovanni Martinelli (later Director of the Greater Romagna Oncology Institute of Meldola), and Prof. Vittorio Stefoni, offered their expertise in managing AIDS-related hematological malignancies, together with Dr. Elena Sabattini, who guides since many years the outstanding hemolymphopathology Dept. of the S. Orsola University Hospital formerly directed by Prof. Stefano A. Pileri [279, 280], together with Dr. Francesco Bacci. Other relevant contributions in the hematological area in the field of Infectious Diseases come from Dr. Nicola Vianelli in the fieldof platelet disorders and opportunistic infection control, later joined by Dr. Marta Stanzani, Dr. Paolo Ricci who conducted a continued monitoring of bacterial infections and their in vitro susceptibility rate in his inpatient unit together with Prof. Anna Nanetti. Dr. Giusppe Bandini, Dr. Francesca Bonifazi, and Prof. Elena Zamagni are strongly involved in bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, Dr. Mario Arpinati heads the Day-Hospital Service, and Dr. Marco Finelli is strongly engaged in the mylodysplastic syndrome, as well as in the care ot thalassemic patients, whereas Prof. Lucia Catani and Prof. Nicoletta Testoni are responsible for the Hematology clinical and research laboratory in Bologna. Dr. Mauro Fiacchini coordinates the home care assistance of hematological patients.

Among our Hematology consultant, we must remind Dr. Giovanni Visani who later leaded the Hematology Dept. of the “S. Salvatore” Hospital of Pesaro, after the “legendary” Prof. Guido Lucarelli, who had to face a “mysterious” hepatis B outbreak in his Dept., well depicted by his son, the reknown writer Carlo Lucarelli. Dr. Filippo Gherlinzoni, also from the Bologna Hematology school founded by the legendary Prof. Sante Tura, later headed the Hematology Dept. of the Ca’ Foncello” Hospital of Treviso, Dr. Patrizio Mazza headed the Hematology Dept. of he “S. Guseppe Moscati” Hospital of Taranto, while Prof. Monica Bocchia is part of the University of Siena Hematology Dept., and Prof. Roberto Massimo Lemoli joined Prof. Marco Gobbi at the University of Genoa Dept. of Hematology,

In the same University Pavilion, refurbished thanks to the Bolognese Seràgnoli Foundation, Prof. Guido Biasco together with Prof. Giovanni Brandi [281] worked in parallel with Prof. Angelo Martoni, who followed Prof. Franco Pannuti as the Head of the Oncology Dept. of the S. Orsola Hospital. Prof. Pannuti also founded the Italian National association for the home care of cancer (Associazione Nazionale Tumori—ANT), now headed by Dr. Raffaella Pannuti.

The General Surgery Dept. headed by Prof. Giuseppe Gozzetti performed the first hepatic transplantation in adults together with Prof. Alighieri Mazziotti, and the support of the Anestesiology School founded by the legendary Prof. Carlo Cetrullo, followed by Prof. Gerardo Martinelli and later by Prof. Stefano Faenza. One female child managed by Prof. Gabriella Verucchi has been successfully transplanted, and three decades later she remains well.

Dr. Alessandro Nanni Costa from Bologna is an international pioneer in the field of solid organ transplantation, while the referral centre for organ transplantation was directed by Dr. Lorenza Ridolfi, and later by Dr. Gabriela Sangiorgi, with Dr. Carlo De Cillia as the Infectious Diseases specialist.

Adult cecliac disease has been discovered by the Prof. Gasbarrini’s School of Internal Medicine at the Univeristy of Bologna with the essential role of Prof. Fiorenza Boncivini. Later, Dr. Umberto Volta became an international national referral in this field [282].

Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Chron’s disease usually become apparent in the adolescence, and are managed by Prof. Massimo Campieri and Prof. Paolo Gionchetti, Dr. Fernando Rizzello and Dr. Carlo Calabrese among others [283, 284], with Prof. Gilberto Poggioli and Prof. Mario Lima as surgical refereees, according to patients’ age. In all chronic gastrointestinal disorders including celiac disease, Prof. Giovanni Battista Gasbarrini and Prof. Antonio Gasbarrini are internationally known referees [285], and Prof. Patrizia Brigidi as a major “daughter” of Prof. Giorgio Cantelli Forti, also expanded her studies to the microbiota of preterm infants [286].

At the Dept. of Internal Medicine addressed to endocrinology disorders directed by Prof. Paolo Vezzadini, Dr. Manfredi investigated to role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the pathogenesis of apparently idiopathic, refractory, AIDS-related diarrhea, and posed the basis for its treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide [287].

The Angiology/Coagulation Department founded by Prof. Sergio Coccheri, followed by Prof. Gualiero Palareti, and later by Prof. Benilde Cosmi, provides an exemplary support to all scientific and clinical needs of our patients, including studies on hemophilia and lupus anticoagulant in HIV-infected and HCV-infected children and adults. Dr. Giuseppina Rodorigo follows hemophiliac children often infected with HIV and/or HCV until adult age [15], while Dr. Cristina Legnani conducts many specialistic laboratory assays, including lupus anticoagulant in HIV-infected patients with aseptic femural head osteonecrosis [113]. Finally, Dr. Vincenzo De Rosa was one of the earlier “sons” of Prof. Coccheri at his Dept. The Bolognese foundation “Marino Golinelli” generously supports this Dept. since over three decades [15].

At the University of Bologna Dept. of Cardiology directed by Prof. Angelo Branzi, after the “legendary” Prof. Bruno Magnani, Dr. Giovanni Melandri and Dr. Paolo Ortolani acted as the major consultant for HIV-infected patients with acute cardiologic problems [288], while Prof. Raffaele Bugiardini, Prof. Olivia Manfrini, and Dr. Edina Cenko are fruitfully engaged since ever in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular risk, also considering gender issues [289].

At the University Dept. of Ophthalmology directed by Prof. Roberto Caramazza, Prof. Mauro Cellini provided his consultancies for adult patients with infectious diseases [290], while Dr. Simonetta Guidelli Guidi offered her expertise to cover all ophtalmological problems since the neonatal age. In the same field, the founder of Pediatric Ophthalmology at the Unversity of Bologna was Prof. Piero Puddu.

Dr. Domenico Saggese after Prof. Tito Malfatti and Giovanni Farneti, was very interested in children ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders, while Dr. Ottavio Cavicchi and Dr. Giovanni Sorrenti provided their availability to visit HIV-infected patients too, starting from the University Dept. of Otolaryngology of Bologna, headed by Prof. Ettore Pirodda after Prof. Pietro Caliceti, and Prof. Vittorio Cenacchi followed by Prof. Alberto Rinaldi Ceroni and Prof. Antonio Pirodda, with Dr. Ernesto Pasquini and Dr. Mauro Righi especially interested in infectious complications of ENT surgery) [291, 292].

Prof. Roberto D’Alessandro “father” of the Evidence based medicine (EBM) at the S. Orsola University Hospital with Dr. Roberto Iovine, Dr. Benilde Cosmi, Dr. Maria Guarino, and Dr. Marco Fusconi, together with Dr. Rita Rinaldi always covered all needs of neurological consultancy in the field of Infectious Diseases, especially in terms of differential diagnosis [293].

Dr. Maddalena Menarini and Dr. Roberto Iovine, who followed the legendary founder of Rehabilitation Medicine Prof. Carlo Menarini [294], provided their skilled rehabilitation expertise for children, after the early in-house-arranged techniques heralded by Prof. Demos Gotti the Infectious Dept., which started from 1950s, with tapis-roulants and some form of hydrokinetic therapy to manage the severe remnants of both poliomyelitis and CNS tuberculosis [3,5, 6,7]. Later, Dr. Roberto Iovine with Dr. Maddalena Menarini, provided evidence- based rehabilitation techniques for HIV-infected patients [295, 296].

Prof. Vittorio Volterra, Prof. Domenico Berardi, Prof. Diana De Ronchi, and Prof. Laura Fratiglioni investigated HIV-associated psychiatric disturbances [297, 298], while Dr. Carlo Lazzari (also specialist in Infectious Diseases) [299], was followed by Dr. Andrea Norcini Pala and Dr. Alessia Spinelli, who devoted their skills to AIDS-associated psychological needs [300].

At the University Radiology Dept. directed by Prof. Romeo Canini, and later by Prof. Maurizio Zompatori, Dr. Giovanni Tani with Dr. Rita Sciutti were responsible for the dedicated pediatric radiology service, which also provided ultrasonography, CT, and MRI examinations when needed, while transfontanellar and hip ultrasonography were directly performed by skilled pediatricians themselves. Regarding CNS MRI imaging, Dr. Monica Maffei from the Dept. of Neuroradiology of the “Bellaria” Hospital of Bologna directed by Prof. Marco Leonardi and later by Prof. Raffaele Lodi, presently acting as the Scientific Director of the “Bellaria” Neurologic Research Hospital of Bologna, offered her excellent advice, acting as a pediatric neuropsychiatry specialist. Prof. Giuseppe Battista and Prof. Claudia Sassi covered the most relevant issues related to opportunistic chest infections among adult hematological patients, and also co-operated with Dr. Manfredi, in pointing out a candidate score system for the radiological follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis, as well as assessing the thymus volume as an imaging marker of therapeutic response in HIV infected patients [301]. The University Dept. of Radiology had got a detached section at the Dentistry Clinics S. Vitale Street, headed by Prof. Paolo Pisi, who is also the reference for oral surgery, performed by Prof. Cladio Marchetti and Prof. Gian Andrea Pelliccioni with their co-workers [302].

Dr. Carla Serra is an internationaly reknown referral for contrast-enhanced and interventional ultrasonography. She was also available to perform carotid ultrasonography study as predictive marker of accelerated ageing and increased cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected patient [100].

Previously, Prof. Renata Caudarella of the University of Bologna Dept. of ageing and Nephrological Science offered her skilled expertise to assess osteoporosis and mineral metabolism in HIV-infected patient, with Dr. Fabio Vescini, later working at the Endocrinology & Metabolism Dept. of the University Hospital” S. Maria della Misericordia” of Udine, and University of Bologna dedicated virologists Both dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and calcaneal ultrasonography assays have been used for clinical and scientific purposes, under the leadership of Dr. Marco Borderi [303–307].

Dr. Emilia Scanabissi was the pioneer of the Neuropediatric Dept., followed by Prof. Emilio Franzoni who founded a specific subspecialty also extended to all disturbances of alimentary behaviour together with Prof. Antonia Parneggiani. The Dept. of Pediatric Neuropsichiatry is now directed by Prof. Duccio Maria Cordelli with the same team, including Dr Filomena Moscano and Dr. Elisabetta Malaspina, among others. In the meantime, Dr. Simona Chiodo is the responsible of a Pediatric Neuropsichiatry unit devoted to the care of children with special needs [308].

At the University of Bologna Dept. of Pediatrics, Prof. Rosanna Lazzari headed both clinics and research in the Pediatric Gastroenterology field, with special attention focused on celiac disease and infectious complications [309].

Prof. Alessandro Degli Esposti, who started and continued his work and his studies at the Bologna Pediatric University School [310, 311], later worked at the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna.

Prof. Giorgio Grazia, after his laboratory studies [312–314], headed the research in the tuberculosis, pertussis, and active immunization field [315, 316], and also teached at the Postgraduate School of Infectious Diseases founded by Prof. Demos Gotti, and later directed by Prof. Francesco Chiodo, followed by Prof. Gabriella Verucchi.

An exceedingly elevated number of Pediatricians and Neonatologists coming from the University of Bologna School of Pediatrics covered many relevant positions in the direction and management of both inpatients and outpatient services in Bologna, in the Emilia-Romagna region, and in the entire Italian country.

Among them, we wish to remind Dr. Paolo Minelli [317], head of the Dept. of Pediatrics at the Hospital of Bentivoglio after Prof. Vittorio A. Mei [317]. Dr. Minelli later moved to the Pediatric Dept. of the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna, earlier directed by Prof. Gabriele Ambrosioni, who maintained a fruitful interest in all pediatric infectious diseases [246].

Among the S. Orsola “sons” we wish to thank Prof. Paoloantonio Scorza, who directed the Dept. of Pediatrics of the S. Maria delle Croci Hospital of Ravenna [318, 319].

Futhermore, we must report about Prof. CosimoVannucchi, who headed the Dept. of Pediatrics of the Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital of Forlì [320], before the arrival of Prof. Paola Dallacasa from Bologna.

Prof. Italo Santopadre in his paper published in the year 1964 summarized even twenty years of experience in treating tubercular meningitis at the University Clinic of Pediatrics of Bologna [321], which represented a major engagement for Prof. Demos Gotti and his extremely innovative rehabilitation techniques applied to all the severe sequelae of both poliomyelitis and tuberculosis, also providing some support and lodging to their families [3,5–7]. Later, Prof. Santopadre guided the Dept. of Pediatrics of the Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova of Reggio Emilia [244, 321].

Prof. Danilo Gobesso after his early paper on PCR determination on the cerebrospinal fluid [322], and that around the role of neuroaminic acid as a protection against viral diseases [323], together with Prof. Gianna Piazzi was highly involved in pediatric cardiology, rheumatic fever, and all infectious diseases. [324, 325].

Other great “sons” of the University School of Pediatric are Dr. Fabrizio Sandri, Head of the Dept. of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive care unit of the Maggiore Hospital of Bologna, together with Dr. Fabrizio Demaria and coworkers, all of them usually dealing with infectious diseases complications of newborns and infants until the recent Covid pandemic [326, 327].

Concurrently, Dr. Sandra Sandri kept the territorial direction of the Dept. of Prevention of the local health care of the Bologna metropolitan area, strongly engaged in vaccination planning, with Dr. Elisabetta Tridapalli [328].

The University School of Surgical Pediatrics founded by Prof. Remigio Dòmini and continued by Prof. Mario Lima, Prof. Marcello Dòmini and Prof. Tommaso Gargano, with their staff including Dr. Michele Libri, Dr. Claudio Antonellini and Dr. Giovanni Ruggeri among others, largely co-operated to correct urological and gastrointestinal malformations leading to repeated and life-threatening infectious complications [329]. The present secretary Mrs. Rita Chiarini followed the historical one, Mrs. Lorella Ansaloni.

Children with congenital heart abormalities also coming from developing countries are treated surgically by Prof. Gaetano Gargiulo [330], while their medical follow-up were ensured by Prof. Fernando Maria Picchio, followed by Prof. Marco Boncivini, and later by Dr. Andrea Donti and their many co-wokers, with Dr. Daniela Prandstraller and Dr. Gabriele Bronzetti, among many excellent specialists [331, 332].

Prof. Simonetta Baroncini headed the pediatric intensive care Dept. at that time, offering prompt and efficient co-operation for all possible needs [333], as well as a continued, excellent scientific feedback. Presently, Dr. Fabio Caramelli directs same Dept., working together with Dr. Rosina De Rose, among many others.

Prof. Bruno Babini, earlier involved in the laboratory research at the Gozzadini Clinic, after working together with Prof. Paoloantonio Scorza [319], later directed the Dept. of Pediatrics of the “S. Maria degli Angeli” Hospital of Adria.

Prof. Franco Lotti, another great “son” of Prof. Gaetano Salvioli, headed the Dept. of Pediatrics of the “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza” Hospital of San Giovanni Rotondo, especially devoted to pediatric oncohematology until his death [334], when Prof. Andrea Pession tooks over as a consultant [216].

Prof. Giorgio Manfredi moved to the Pediatric/Neonatology Division of the “Ospedale per gli Infermi” of Faenza, together with Dr. Giovanni Serritelli [55], Dr. Giuseppe Bonfiglioli (who later headed the Dept. of Pediatrics of Pavullo nel Frignano), Dr. Andrea Zucchini (also specialist in Infectious Diseases), [55, 140–145, 149, 335], Dr. Giuliana Monti, (who headed the Dept. of Health care prevention of the local health care unit of Faenza) [55, 94], where also Dr. Maria Teresa Di Fiore worked [142, 143, 222, 335], while Dr. Laura Azzaroli, Dr. Annamaria Metri, Dr. Paolo Ricciardelli, Dr. Imelde Ragazzini [335], Dr. Gaetano Pennacchio, Dr. Ernesto Littera (who later worked at the Hospitals of Vignola and Sassuolo), Dr. Adriano Natale Viteritti, and Dr. Maria Teresa Tosi [224], represented an essential part of the medical team.

Dr. Giovanni Serritelli also spent his skills in the check of all thermal cots and incubators for premature newborns, Dr. Giuseppe Bonfiglioli also performed both hip and tranfontanellar CNS ultrasonography, while Dr. Andrea Zucchini was highly involved in both diagnosis and treatment of allergies, pediatric ultrasonography, and in the screening of cystic fibrosis though updated sweat tests.

Finally, the “grandson” Dr. Claudia Laghi from Faenza, reached the direction of a specialized neonatal intensive care Division at the” Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli” Hospital of Reggio Calabria.

Among “sons, grandsons”, “relatives” and “friends” of Prof. Demos Gotti and Prof. Francesco Chiodo, we are honored to herewith remind:

Dr. Francesco Guzzo, Dr. Elena Guerra, and Dr. Valeria Mondardini at the “S. Martino” Hospital of Belluno;

Dr. Pier Luigi Capponcelli at the “Giuseppe Castelli” Hospital of Verbania-Pallanza;

Dr. Enzo Raise earlier at the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna [8, 9], and is the head of the “S. Giovanni & Paolo” Hospital of Venice, and the “Ospedale dell’Angelo” of Mestre;

Dr. Cristina Beltrami in Florence (at the international “Meyer” Children’s Hospital);

Dr. Ivo Maria Crosato at the Azienda Sanitaria Giuliana-Isontina” of Trieste;

Dr. Bartolomeo Cannella, earlier at the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the “Ospedale Civile” of Modica, and later at the “Giovanni Paolo II” Hospital of Ragusa;

Dr. Cecilia Donzelli direcs the primary care immunizazion program in Mantua, after several international experiences;

Dr. Lucio Bonazzi [8, 9], earlier at the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna, and later Head of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova of Reggio Emilia;

Dr. Annagiulia Gramenzi, as an Hepatologist at the Dept. of “Semeiotica Medica” headed by Prof. Muro Bernardi, and later by Prof. Franco Trevisani, at S. Orsola Hospital of Bologna;

Dr. Ezio Lazzari, at the Internal Medicine Dept. directed by Prof. Vincenzo Stanghellini after Prof. Roberto Corinaldesi, at the same S. Orsola Hospital;

Dr. Mario Monti, Dr. Vittorio Vannini, Dr. Maria Gabriella Catalini, Dr. Gian Luigi Trenti, Dr. Mario Zini, Dr. Giovanni Inardi, at the “Maggiore” Hospital of Bologna [8, 9], together with Dr. Olga Viviana Coronado Villagarcìa [19, 20].

Dr. Stefano Brighi, Dr. Sandra Brighi, Dr. Carmela Grosso, Dr. Maria Carmela Salluce, Dr. Eleonora Magistrelli at both “Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital” of Forlì/Cesena and at “Maurizio Bufalini” Hospital of Cesena, formerly directed by Dr. Alessandro Stagno;

Dr. Claudio Cancellieri, Dr. Francesco Allegrini, Dr. Simona Di Cesare, and at the “Morgagni-Pierantoni” Hospital of Forlì, with Dr. Antonio Mastroianni who won the contest to become head of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Hospital of Catanzaro, and later won the contest and became Director of the SS. Annunziata Hospital of Cosenza;

Dr. Sergio Ranieri, followed by Dr. Tiziano Zauli (also specialist in Dermatology/Venereology), and later by Paolo Bassi, together with Dr. Giuseppe Ballardini, Dr. Davide De Donà, Dr. Elisabetta Briganti, Dr. Stefania Calzolari, Dr. Caterina Salvadori, and Dr. Michele Pavoni, at the “S. Maria delle Croci” Hospital of Ravenna. Dr. Costantina D’Angelo at the Medical Direction of the “Umberto I” Hospital of Lugo.

Dr. Alessandra Govoni at the S. Maria della Scaletta of Imola, where Dr. Cecilia Pintori works in a private setting;

Prof. Antonio Ferlini, followed by Dr. Francesco Albertini, Dr. Bruno Menni, and Dr. Miriam Zanotti at the “Ospedale per gli Infermi” of Faenza, and the “Umberto I” Hospital of Lugo;

Dr. Massimo Arlotti also specialist in Dermatology/Venereology, head of the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the “Ospedale degli Infermi” of Rimini after Dr. Renzo Ciammarughi [374], with Dr. Fernanda Mori, Dr. Patrizia Ortolani, Dr. Giorgio Morigi, Dr. Giorgio Gobbi, Dr. Carlo Biagetti, and Dr. Giacomo Vandi;

Dr. Antonio Boschini since ever is the responsible of the S. Patrignano Medical Center located in Coriano, also devoted to the management of infectious diseases, and especially HIV/AIDS;

Dr. Livia Tampellini joined “Médecine sans Frontieres”;

Dr. Ruggero Giuliani and Dr. Teresa Sebastiani, from “Médecine sans Frontière” moved to Milan, at “S. Paolo & Carlo Hospital”;

Dr. Elisabetta Freo, also working in Milan, at S. Paolo & Carlo Hospital;

Dr. Daria Pocaterra at the Dept. of Infectious Diseases of the “Luigi Sacco” Hospital of Milan;

Dr. Nirmala Rosseti at the “Galliera” Hospital of Genoa;

Dr. Carlo Lazzari, from Sulmona [299];

Dr. Nicolò Girometti, working at the Chelsea & Westminster Hospital of London;

Dr. Michele Nafissi, Dr. Benedetta Piergentili, and Dr. Sabrina Mariel Spinosa Guzman, at major international Pharma Companies making research in the field of Infectious Diseases and HIV/AIDS.

In the Emilia region, we remember the Colleagues who served in the major Infectious Diseases Depts., usually devoted to the care of adult patients.

At the “Guglielmo da Saliceto” Hospital of Piacenza, Dr. Francesco Alberici who completed his studies at the University of Pavia was followed Dr. Daria Sacchini, who directed the same Dept. until her retirement. Later, the same Dept. is headed by Dr. Mauro Codeluppi, with Dr. Marzio Sisti engaged in infection control, and Dr. Giovanna Ratti, Dr. Laura Guerra, Dr. Maria Cristina Leoni, Dr. Alberto Faggi, Dr. Franco Paolillo, Dr. Alessandro Ruggieri with Dr. Catrina Valdatta, as active members of the medical team;

At the University of Parma Dept. of Infectious Diseases and Hepatogy, Prof. Carlo Ferrari leades the research in the field of chronic HCV/HBV hepatitis with Dr. Anna Degli Antoni and Dr. Carlo Calzetti strongly involved in the care of HIV-hepatitis co-infection. Other staff physicians are: Dr. Arianna Alfieri, Dr. Noemi Bazzanini, Dr. Roberto Bertoni, Dr. Elisabetta Tedeschi, Dr. Elisabetta Biasini, Dr. Carolina Boni, Dr. Gianfranco Elia, Dr. Gabriele Missale, Dr. Elisa Negri, Dr. Andrea Olivani, Dr. Alessandra Orlandini, Dr. Marco Pesci, Dr. Paolo Pizzaferri, Dr. Claudia Schianchi, Dr. Simona Schivazappa, and Dr. Maria Antonietta Valli.

At the “Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova” of Reggio Emilia, Prof. Franco Fiaccadori was followed by Dr. Luciano Bonazzi, and later by Dr. Giacomo Magnani, with Dr. Enrico Barchi involved since ever in HIV/AIDS. After the retirement of Dr. Magnani, Dr. Marco Massari heads the same Dept., together with Dr. Laura Brigidi, Dr. Giada Chiara Contardi, Dr. Elisa Garlassi, Dr. Guido Menozzi, Dr. Sergio Mezzadri, Dr. Francesca Prati, Dr. Maria Alessandra Ursitti, and Dr. Giuliana Zoboli.

At the Ferrara University Dept., after Prof. Luigi Castagnari, Prof. Carlo Contini came from Rome. He conducts extensive laboratory reseach on viral, protozoal, and mycobacterial diseases among others, together with Prof. Anastasio Grilli and Prof. Rosario Cultrera.

At the “Arcispedale S. Anna” Dept. of Infectious Diseases of Ferrara previously headed by Dr. Florio Ghinelli, Dr. Marco Libanore is presently the head, maintaining his interest in nosocomial infections among others, with Dr. Laura Sighinolfi involved since ever in HIV/AIDS clinical trials, Mario Panteleoni and Roberto Bicocchi also devoted to inpatients, while Dr. Silvia Carradori is mainly dedicated to HIV and chronic hepatitis outpatients.

At the University of Modena Medical Centre, mainly located in the Hospital “Policlinico” of Modena, the University Dept. of Infectious Diseases was formely headed by Prof. Franco Squadrini and Prof. Bruno De Rienzo with their team including Dr. Nicola Mongiardo, a very appreciated Infectiologist and also a creative writer like Dr. Piero Grima who acted as the head of the Dept. of Infectious Diseseases of the “S. Caterina Novella” Hospital of Galatina.

We herewith are pleased to underline that the world-reknown School of Infectious Diseases of the University of Milan heralded the Italian research and clinics in the world with Prof. Mauro Moroni and Prof. Roberto Esposito in the field of adult patients, and concurrently with Prof. Nicola Principi and Prof. Susanna Esposito in the pediatric area [375, 376].

The chair of Infectious Diseases of the University of Modena was later headed by Prof. Roberto Esposito who came from the University of Milan, and also led for some time the University of Parma Dept. of Infectious Disaeses. At this time, the Dept. of Infectious Diseses of the University of Modena is headed by Prof. Cristina Mussini, and her staff is composed by: Prof. Giovanni Guaraldi (who created the multidisciplinary Metabolic Clinic, attracting a moltitude of HIV-infected patients from the entire country), together with Dr. Andrea Bedini (who also sent a consultant for the “S. Agostino-Estense” Hospital of Baggiovara), and Dr. Federica Carli, Dr. Luca Corradi, Dr. Gianluca Cuomo, Dr. Margherita Di Gaetano, Dr. Erica Franceschini, Dr. Marianna Menozzi, Dr. Gabriella Orlando, Dr. Cinzia Puzzolante, and Dr. Antonella Santoro. At the University of Modena, the eminent chairman of Immunology is Prof. Andrea Cossarizza, who is an outstanding and internationally reknown scientist like Prof. Claudio Franceschi of Bologna, and Prof. Pio Conti of Chieti, Prof. Cossarizza’s interests span from basic to applied sciences, and after studying HIV pathogenesis and antiretroviral related toxicity are now also involved in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic [377, 378].

We herewith are pleased to underline that the world-reknown School of Infectious Diseases of the University of Milan heralded the Italian research and clinics in the world with Prof. Mauro Moroni and Prof. Roberto Esposito in the field of adult patients, and concurrently with Prof. Nicola Principi and Prof. Susanna Esposito in the pediatric area [337, 338].

Studies and intuitions

the same neuraminic acid assessed in preliminary studies in blood cell membranes during infectious diseases [313, 314, 323], was also found in a free form in the serum of rabbits kept at the Pediatric Clinic, which were experimentally infected with influenza virus in their clinic enclosures (“stabulari”). [314]. This apparently trivial, but truly “visionary” observation must be carefully assessed on the ground of the key role of viral-driven neuraminidase role in the diagnosis and especially in the ethiological treatment of influenza disease with oral oseltamivir and topic zanamivir, both specific anti-influenza neuramidase inhibitors which will become available only around 50 years later [336]. Further experimental studies confirmed the major role of the neuraminic acid in the protection against different infectious diseases, the majority of them of viral origin [313, 314, 323], but still not identifiable with the limited virogical resources available in mid-1950s.

C-reactive a key biomarker of inflammation was studied also in the cerebrospinal fluid [322], in a period when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was readily accessible with simple, cheap, and easily accessible instruments located in all the inpatients divisions of the hospital, here also nurses could provide a reliable result at the bedside [337, 338]. Recently, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was assessed by Prof. Calza as a reliable marker of cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection exposed to a protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy [101, 102]. These studies have been carried out thanks to the co-operation of Dr. Carla Serra, a national reknown ultrasonographist who performs routine contrast-enhanced and interventional ultrasonograpy [100].

Finally, the role of leucocyte membrane surface glycopeptide receptors was hypothesized as the attachment location of many different respiratory viral disease, including Sars-Cov-2 [339–343, 334].

Also Prof. Giovanni Romeo, an eminent Genetist of the University of Bologna awarded by many institutions in the United States, took an active part to these researchers [344].

The strict linkage between the expression of some surface glycoproteins as receptors of many viral respiratory diseases was confirmed during several decades until now, when it represents a key part of the pathogenesis of the Sars-Cov-2 virus disease discovered in the year 2019 [340–343].

But the exceedingly most popular advancement in both Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases Clinics of Bologna was represented by laboratory and cinical studies around the diffusing anti-tuberculosis killed vaccine “Vaccino Diffondente Salvioli—VDS” which showed its extraordinary activity and safety just in an era when tuberculosis was a severe, endemic disease of both adults and children. Many studies were addressed not only in Italy but also in Europe,where the potential of VDS was largely recognized [345–370], from the studies performed by Prof. Gaetano Salvioli, by his son Prof. Gian Paolo Salvioli, and their teams of clinicians and researchers in Bologna, Italy, where the vaccine was administered during two decades to all newborns and children, also in the tuberculosis dedicated outpatient facilities located outside of main city hospitals (the so-called “Dispensari anti-tubercolari”) [364], and proved effective also in the Bologna University Dentistry settings [36, 366, 368, 370].

In Italy the VDS vaccine vas replaced by the live attenuated Bacille-Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine, mainly under the pressure of French vaccine companies. Presently, BCG remains the only commercially available anti-tubercular vaccine extensively used also in health care and teaching personnel, at all levels, although some people still claim for the return of VDS, especially in the city of Bologna, where this vaccination has been successfuly exploited to all newborns for over two decades.

BCG vaccine does not protect from invasive, disseminated, tuberculosis [371], and may cause significant local and regional adverse event in young babies [372], as well as cases of local BCG-itis when its preparation is used for the local treatment of urothelial cancer by vesical instillation [373].

Speaking about the founder of the Gozzadini Pediatric University Clinics Prof. Gaetano Salvioli, we also must strongly underline that the presence of parents together with hospitalized children all over the day was not only allowed, but also actively favored as a fundamental part of the care/cure process.

His son Prof. Gian Paolo Salvioli continued his career in the Neonatology and Child Preventive and Welfare Dept. of the University of Bologna, followed by Prof. Giacomo Faldella, Prof. Guido Cocchi, and later by Prof. Luigi Tommaso Corvaglia. His secretariat was organized by Mrs.Monica Sandri. The team of Prof. Covaglia include Prof. Santo Arcuri and Dr. Giulia Massinissa Maggini, among many others excellent colleagues.

Prof. Gian Paolo Salvioli also acted as the Dean of the School of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Bologna from the year 1984 up to 1995, and he directed the postdoctoral School of Medicine and Surgery from ther year 2007 up to year 2012.

The legendary figure of Prof. Gaetano Salvoli is well depicted by his biographer Prof. Italo Farnetani in the year 2014, 120 years after his birth, as reported below (Farnetani I., Rivista Società Pediatria Preventiva e Sociale, 2019, with permission).

Gaetano Salvioli was born on October 19, 1894. His gradfather Gaetano was an eminent pathologist and discovered Streptococcus pneumoniae. His uncle Igino continued the familiar medical tradition as a Pathologist in Padua.

The Salvoli’s biography is very interesting, since it encompasses a key period of the histoty of Pediatrics, and it also was full of events which enlightened at least sixty years of the Italian history. Gaetano Salvioli took part in the WWI, finally as a medical officer in Health Care Departments of first-line infantry units. At the end of WWI, Salvioli was only 24 years-old, age presently considered part of the adolescence. After the WWI, he attended a bacteriology laboratory in the city of Trieste, where he was involved in the prevention of several infectious diseases like diphtheria, epidemic meninigis and rickettsial typhus, accesing the “isolation” Hospital. So demonstrading the importance of infectious disease emergencies which characterized all wars since ancient times. Gaetano Salvioli participated with firm belief to the Fiume mission heralded by the poet Gabriele D’Annunzio in September 1919. On Sept. 24, 1919, Salvoli obtained a permament permission to enter and leave the city at any time. On November 20, 1919, Salvioli had got the privilege to wear the commemorative ribbon attributed to the eminent fellows who gave their major contribution to Fiume mission.

Interestingly, we notice that all references to the Fiume campaign were omitted in the Salvoli’s biography during the Fascist period, because of the competition between D’Annunzio and Mussolini. Therefore, at the end of the Fascist regimen, all the references to the Fiume mission came back.

The high level of the scentific activity of Salvioli demonstrated by the opinion of Alessandro Lustig (1857–1937), chairman of Pathology at the University of Florence who acted as a consultant for military health care needs during the war, directly called Salvioli to join his prestigious institution at the University of Florence. From these bases, Salvioli started his brilliant academic career, which allowed him to obtain the prestigios chair of Pediatrics at the University of Bologna.

Both scientific and personal history were influenced and determined by the concurrent scenarios.

The bacteriology attracted the interest of Gaetano Salvioli, since it represented one of the most relevant engagements of military health care, since it allowed a significant epidemiological monitoring.

After his arrival in Padua, more elements of that time concurred to stimulate his interests. Salvioli began to take an interest for the imported diseases with the Italian national colonial missions planned after Libia’s conquest. At the same time, thanks to his significant background of pathological and bacteriological knowledge, considered an indispensable basic medical subject at that time, he oriented his interest towards to the Pediatric Clinic directed by Guido Berghinz who formerly was his first teacher of Pediatrics, and later became the Head of the Padua University Clinic of Pediatrics, after the death of his predecessor Prof.Vitale Tedeschi (1854–1919).

From Padua, Gaetano Salvioli moved to the University of Siena, where he had got the direction of the Pediatric University Clinic since the year 1928–29. In the city of Siena, Salvoli organized the 15th Italian National Conference of Pediatrics, held in September,1934. The political-social enviroment encompassing the promotion of nutrition and physical activity of children and adolescents was completely different when compared with those of the subsequent national Conference hold in Genoa in September 1938, when the Fascist rule, exalted by the conquest of Ethiopia become more and more self-indulgent and autocratic.

During 1930s, Prof. Salvioli was deeply engaged in the field of tuberculosis. In these years the government etablished a massive campaign of prevention and treatment of this disease, which deeply hit the general population after the WWI. The anti-tubercular vaccination anticipated by Maragliano, was conducted on children on large scale though the “anatubercolina Petragnani”.

Prof. Salvioli realized significant research around the first tubercular infection (primary tuberculosis), and later headed the reserch and the clinical implementation of the Vaccino Diffondente Salvioli (VDS). In the year 1927 Prof. Salvioli moved to to the University of Parma, were remained one year only, since he came to the University of Bologna, because of the absurd racial laws, which led to the vacancy of the chair of the Bolognese Maurizio Pincherle (1879–1949), who had a Jewish origin. In the year 1946, Prof. Pincherle was re-integrated, by doubling the chair of Clinical Pediatrics at the University of Bologna.

After the discovery of antibiotics, Prof. Salvioli pointed out his interest in the tratment of tubercular meninigitis with streptomycin, and to the treatment and rehabilitation of poliomyelitis, a disease that in Italy as well as in the entire European continent remained somewhat sporadic until the first great epidemic occurred in the year 1939. Later, it was characterized by multiple relevant epidemic waves.

The Salvioli’s activities well depicted the evolution of the entire medicine after the end of the WWII, until 1980s and later. In the field of Pediatrics, these advances included the development of pediatric hospitals, that of pediatric subspecialties with the need to establish dedicated tertiary care institutions, without forgiving primary care centres, and ameliorate the access of parents as an essential part of the entire care/cure process, which remained a keynote in the entire assistance projects of Prof. Gaetanno Salvoli during his entire life.

The progress of neonatal and intensive care treatment of the so-called “immaturi “(premature) neonates, signed another engagement of Salvioli in equipping the Pediatric clinic with a dedicated inpatient section name “Reparto materno-immaturi”, since the year 1954. The first incubators were a gift by UNICEF, created by United Nations in the year 1946, to support the young victims of the WWII. This moment represents another relevant poin of contact between the political and the assistential history personally lived by Prof. Gateano Salvioli himself.

The assistance to premature newborns was a poorly studied subject, since at the end of WWII limited researches were available from Italy, while more detailed reports came from France, Finland, and the United States.

Twenty years after, Prof. Salvioli acted as the Chairman of the 23rd Italian National Conference of Pediatrics in Bologna, held in September 1954, which devoted a major part of the congress program to the clinical and social assistance of premature newborns.

Gaetano Salvioli remains a unique figure for young Clinicians and Researchers, since during his life he carefully exploited all his citizen’s duties, without conditioning or limiting his medical activities.

He experienced a difficult adolescence during the WWI, which was a truly destructive war conflict the whole nation.

Later, he participated to the WWI thinking that it was a country’s need, as well as the Fiume mission.

Through his active involvement, Prof. Salvioli witnessed his strong committment as a human being and as a citizen, so that external factors never influenced his attitude towards medical assistance and research. Walking again on hispath, we underline that his studies had been always related to nationwide epidemiological and health care needs: this represents the best unbreakable link among the person, the phyisician and the scientist in the sole person of Gaetano Salvioli.

His studies were a high example of civilian engagement since most of them represented an answer to real healthcare needs of the country. In fact, they were significantly influenced by the greatest epidemiological emergencies of the country after the WWI, and later by the engagement in the fight against both tuberculosis and poliomyelitis, which represented “novel” diseases at that time.

Finally, his engagement in the neonatal intensive care was growing over time, thanks to the progressive evolution of the health care scenarios determined by an ameliorated control of many infectious diseases after the introduction of antibiotics, and the novel, relevant technological advances in the assistance to high-risk neonates.

All Professor Salvoli’s activities concurrently covered teaching, research, and medical assistance, always linked by a solid connection. This sober attitude, with maximum attention continuously deserved to sick children, and the concurrent civilian engagement, is the greatest lesson left by Salvioli’s to his great family of colleagues and collaborators who followed his projects over the subsequent decades, until now (translated in part from: Italo Farnetani, Rivista Italiana Pediatria Preventiva e Sociale 2019, with permission).

Prof. Libero Martoni, born in Fusignano on February 17, 2014, after his graduation in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Bologna in the year 1940, joined the pediatric clinics as an assistant. In the year 1958 he was called to cover the chair of Neonatology and Child Welfare (“Puericultura”) at the University of Genoa. In February 18, 1960, he came back to the University of Bologna to cover the chair of Child Welfare and Nutrition (“Puericultura”). Since 1964, he directed the University Pediatric Clinic as a full Professor of Pediatrics: Prof. Martoni joined teaching, clinical, and scientific activities and authored around 200 publications in the different fields of neonatology, immunology, endocrinology, hematology, hepatology, as well as infectious diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis. “His membership in multiple international and national societies represents a reward to his exceedingly significant engagements” [translated in part from Francesca Farnetani. Libero Martoni. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani—Volume 71 (2008), with permission].

The first full Professor and chairman of Infectious Disases at the University of Bologna was the Pediatrician Prof. Demos Gotti, who teached Infectous Disease of both children and adults.

Prof. Gotti actively worked at the anti-poliomyelitic centre of the University clinic, founded in the year 1939 by Prof. Gaetano Salvioli. This hub rehabilitation centre located at the University Pediatric clinic, was characterized by an early motor activity, to avoid the severe damage of a prolonged limb paralysis which could not be corrected by the available orthopedic techniques. Both tapis-roulants and early hidro kinesiotherapy were actively performed [7, 8]. These highly innovative issues deserved major attention by both Pediatricians and Orthopedics. In fact, an outstanding international conference on juvenile palsy had been just organized in Bologna, which was also attended by the worldwide famous scientist Prof. Albert Sabin, who early proposed his anti-poliomyelitic live-attenuated oral vaccine.

The University Pediatric clinics has been strongly engaged since ever in the care of tubercular meningitis, in both children and adults. In parallel, the killed anti-tubercular vaccine created by Prof. Gaetano Salvioli (the so-called “Vaccino Diffondente Salvioli”—VDS), was successfully administered to all neonates not only at the Obstetric Clinic of the S. Orsola University Hospital, but also at the other Obstetric Hospital located in D’Azeglio Street, downtown Bologna, during at least two decades. The VDS vaccine ensured an effective protection against tuberculosis, which in the pre-antibiotic era was reponsible for very dangerous tuberculosis outbreaks in both household and school settings.


The authors wish to thank warmfully all those who significantly contributed to this work. Without their reminds, the present paper could be impossible to write down. The majority of contributors name are already enclosed throughout the text. The authors apologize in advance for any inadvertent omission, and wait for eventual news, to integrate their paper.


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11. Bortolotti F, Verucchi G, Cammà C, et al; Italian Observatory for HCV Infection and Hepatitis C in Children. Long-term course of chronic hepatitis C in children: from viral clearance to end-stage liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1900–7

12. Roveri P, Faggioli A, Gianninoni AR, et al. An antipneumococcal vaccination program for the elderly of Bologna. Ann Ig. 1999;11:319–27

13. Salamina G, Dalle Donne E, Niccolini A, et al. Foodborne outbreak of gastroenteris involving Listeria monocytogenes. Epidemiol Infect. 1996 ;117:429–36

14. Chiodo F, Costigliola P, Ricchi E. Sindrome da immunodeficienza acquisita e paologie correlate. Editoriale Grasso, Bologna, 1988.

15. Costigliola P, Ricchi E, Manfredi R, et al. No evidence of HIV-2 infection amongst HIV-1 Ab positive people in the largest cities of north-eastern Italy. Eur J Epidemiol. 1992;8:140–1

16. Ricchi E, Miniero R, Borderi M, et al. HCV antibody prevalence in italian omo-bisexual men Proceedings of The Eighth International Congress of Virology, Berlino (Germania), 26–31 agosto 1990; pag. 197

De Luca P, Gramegna A, Manfredi R. Assistenza infermieristica al paziente affetto da AIDS. Proceedings of the Conference: “AIDS e Sanità Pubblica. Gestione del paziente sieropositivo nella realtà della nuova Azienda USL”, Lodi, 20 aprile 1996; pag. 16–18

18. Ricchi E, Gramegna A, Borderi M, et al. La gestione del Day-Hospital per i pazienti con infezione da HIV Gli Ospedali della Vita. 1995;22:77–82

19. Manfredi R, Mastroianni A, Coronado OV, et al. Fluconazole as prophylaxis against fungal infections in parienta with advanced HIV infection. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:64–9

20. Manfredi R, Rezza G, Coronado V, et al. Is AIDS-related cryptococcosis more frequent among men? AIDS 1995;9:297–8

21. Bucciardini R, D’Ettorre G, Baroncelli S, et al; ISS-NIA study group. Virological failure at one year in triple-class experienced patients switching to raltegravir-based regimens is not predicted by baseline factors. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23:459–63

22. Weimer LE, Fragola V, Floridia M, Get al; ISS-NIA Study Group. Response to raltegravir-based salvage therapy in HIV-infected patients with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus coinfection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:193–9

23. Degli Antoni A, Weimer LE, Manfredi R, et al. A reduced grade of liver fibro-steatosis after raltegravir, maraviroc and fosamprenavir in an HIV/HCV co-infected patient with chronic hepatitis, cardiomyopathy, intolerance to nelfinavir and a marked increase of serum creatine phosphokinase levels probably related to integrase inhibitor use. West Indian Med J. 2012;61:932–6

24. Calza L, Briganti E, Manfredi R, et al. Influenza. Recenti Prog Med. 2000;91:657–66

25. Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Anthrax. Recenti Prog Med. 2001;92:717–26

26. Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Tick-borne infections. Recenti Prog Med. 2004;95:403–13

27. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S. A novel antiretroviral class (fusion inhibitors) in the management of HIV infection. Present features and future perspectives of enfuvirtide (T-20). Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:2369–84

28. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Biagetti C, et al. Antiretroviral Therapy in the real world. Population-based pharmacoeconomic analysis of administration of anti-HIV regimens to 990 patients. Clin Drug Invest. 2005;25:527–35

29. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S. Novel pharmaceutical molecules against emerging resistant gram-positive cocci. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010;14:96–108

30. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R.The emerging of the fifth malaria parasite (Plasmodium knowlesi): a public health concern? Braz J Infect Dis. 2010;14:299–309

31. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Fiorino S. The Justinian plague (part one). Infez Med. 2012;20:125–39

32. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Fiorino S The Justinian plague (part two). Influence of the epidemic on the rise of the Islamic Empire. Infez Med. 2012;20:217–32

33. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics? Infez Med. 2013;21:320–4

34. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R. The health of Italian troops and prisoners during World War I. Infez Med. 2019;27:468–478

35. Sabbatani S Fiorino S, Manfredi R, Italian prisoners with tuberculosis in the early nineteenth century: the experience in the Pianosa prison hospital, Infez Med. 2019;25:381–94

36. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R. Plagues and artistic votive expressions (ex voto) of popular piety. Infez Med. 2019;27:198–211

37. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R. The destiny of Italian prisoners in Austro-Hungarian POW camps during the First World War: remembering the defeat of Caporetto 100 years on. Infez Med. 2020;28:108–124

38. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R The plague in Bologna in the year 1527. Infez Med. 2020;28:278–287

39. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R. The plague which hit the city of Bologna in the year 1630. Infez Med. 2021;29:145–156

40. La Placa M, Vecchi A, Lazzari R, et al. Description of a case of materno-fetal infection from Listeria monocytogenes. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1965;47:965–9

41. Re MC, Furlini G, Vignoli M, et al. Immunoblotting analysis of IgA and IgM antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) polypeptides in seropositive infants. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992;11:27–32

42. La Placa M (Ed.) Principi di Microbiologia Medica. Edises, Napoli, 2015 pag 1–798.

43. Musiani M, Zerbini M, Gentilomi G, et al. Persistent B19 Parvovirus infections in haemophilic HIV-1 infected patients. J Med Virol. 1995;46:103–8

44. Manfredi R, Lazzarotto T, Spezzacatena P, et al. Quantitative cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenaemia during antiviral treatment of AIDS-related CMV disease. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997;40:299–302

45. Varani S, Spezzacatena P, Manfredi R, et al. The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and CMV disease is reduced by highly active antiretroviral therapy. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16:433–7

46. Prati C, Pelliccioni GA, Sambri V, et al. Covid-19: its impact on dental schools in Italy, clinical problems in endodontic therapy and general considerations. Int Endod J. 2020;53:723–725

47. Bertoldi A, De Crignis E, Miserocchi A, et al. HIV and kidney: a dangerous liaison. New Microbiol. 2017;40:1–10

48. Foschi C, Salvo M, Galli S, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of genital Mollicutes in Italy over a two-year period. New Microbiol. 2018;41:153–8

49. Petrucci R, Lombardi G, Corsini I, et al. Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube Improves Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36:44–49

50. Manfredi, A. Mazzoni. Micosi ed AIDS. In: L. Ajello, C. Farina, A. Mazzoni, G. Picerno (Eds.), Fondamenti di Micologia Clinica, AMCLI, Milano, 1993; pag. 373–392

51. Manfredi R, Mazzoni A, Nanetti A, et al. Histoplasmosis capsulati and duboisii in Europe: the impact of the HIV pandemic, travel and immigration. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994;10:675–8

52. Mazzoni A, Manfredi R. Aids. Esiste ancora? Storia e prevenzione. ESD-Edizioni Studio Domenicano, Bologna, 2007, pag 1–112.

53. Beltrami C, Manfredi R, D’Antuono A, et al. Sexually-transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults in a large city of Northern Italy: a nine-year prospective survey. New Microbiol. 2003 Jul;26(3):233–41

54. Chiodo F, E Ricchi E, Costigliola P, et al. Vertical transmission of HTLV-III. Lancet. 1986; 6736 (86)91129–30

55. Zucchini A, Serritelli G, Manfredi R, et al. Le sepsi neonatali. Clin Ped (Bologna). 1986; 68:59–71

56. Manfredi R, Bertei L. Gestione clinica della malattia da HIV – Opportunità e prospettive. I Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma, 2001. pag. 1–210.

57. Manfredi R. Infezione da HIV e problematiche sociali, Realtà Medica 2000. 2008:23–31

58. Manfredi R. Infezione da HIV ed universo femminile: un quarto di secolo di storia e attualità., Realtà Medica 2000. 2008: 33–46

59. Manfredi R. High-risk dysmetabolism disorders associated with HAART-treated HIV disease, and reimbursement of lipid-lowering drugs, in a clinical and a socio-economic perspective. AIDS Rev. 2005;7:155–60

60. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Malattie da Actinomycetales In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pag. 185–189

61. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Malattie da Spirochaetaceae In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pag. 299–310 + tavola fuori testo

62. Chiodo F, Manfredi R Malattie da Leptospiraceae (Leptospirosi) In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pag. 311–314

63. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Malattie da Mycoplasmataceae. In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pag. 315–318

64. Gotti D, Manfredi R Malattie da Rickettsiaceae (Rickettsiosi) In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pp. 319–333 + tavola fuori testo.

65. Chiodo F, Manfredi R Malattie da Retroviridae. Sindrome da Immunodeficienza Acquisita (AIDS) e Patologie Correlate. In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pag. 475–485

66. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Linfocitosi infettiva acuta. In: A. Terragna, F. Di Nola (eds.), Trattato delle Malattie Infettive, UTET, Torino, 1992; pp. 893–4

67. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Infettivologia. In: D. Gaburro, G. Paolucci, G.P. Salvioli, S. Volpato (eds.), Pediatria Generale e Specialistica, Guido Gnocchi Editore-Casa Editrice Idelson, Napoli, 1997; pp. 863–938

68. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Manifestazioni cliniche della varicella In: G. Rocchi (Ed.), Le Infezioni da Virus Varicella-Zoster, Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma, 1995; pp. 49–65

69. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Diagnostica differenziale e di laboratorio della varicella. In: G. Rocchi (Ed.), Le Infezioni da Virus Varicella-Zoster, Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma, 1995; pp. 67–72

70. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Infezione da HIV e AIDS in età pediatrica In: M. Caremani (ed.), AIDS (seconda edizione), Poletto Editore, Milano, 1997; pp. 529–553

71. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Marcatori di progressione dell’infezione da HIV nel bambino. In: F. Aiuti, F. Dianzani, M. Moroni (eds.), Progressi nella Patogenesi e nelle Terapie antiretrovirali dell’infezione da HIV, Verduci Editore, Roma, 1998; pp. 103–114

72. Manfredi R. Terapia antiretrovirale dell’infezione da HIV in età pediatrica: problematiche attuali. In: A. Poggio (ed.), Controversie e Nuove Prospettive sulla Terapia dell’Infezione da HIV, Tipolitografia Trabella Edizioni, Peschiera Borromeo (MI), 1999; pp. 103–115

73. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Morbillo In: N. Principi (Ed.), “Malattie Infettive Pediatriche”, Volume secondo, Edimes, Pavia, 2000; pp. 517–521

74. Chiodo F., R. Manfredi R. Rosolia. In: N. Principi (Ed.), “Malattie Infettive Pediatriche”, Volume secondo, Edimes, Pavia, 2000; pp. 522–526

75. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Parotite epidemica In: N. Principi (Ed.), “Malattie Infettive Pediatriche”, Volume secondo, Edimes, Pavia, 2000; pp. 527–530

76. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Infezioni da virus Varicella-Zoster. In: N. Principi (Ed.), “Malattie Infettive Pediatriche”, Volume secondo, Edimes, Pavia, 2000; pp. 531–536

77. Calza L, Manfredi R Chiodo F. Adolescenti maturi o adulti bambini? La prevenzione delle Malattie Infettive: in: L. Pardo, L. Pagnoni (Eds). L’arte di crescere. Giovani vecchi o vecchi giovani? Patron, Bologna, 2003; pp. 199–209

78. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Prevenzione e trattamento delle malattie infettive nell’anziano. In. L. Pardo, L. Pagnoni (Eds). L’arte di invecchiare. Giovani vecchi o vecchi giovani? Patron, Bologna, 2003; pp 166–177

79. Chiodo F, Manfredi R, Mastroianni A. Infezioni potenzialmente mortali nell’anziano. Inquadramento clinico ed algoritmo diagnostico. Atti “Corso di Aggiornamento Gerontologico-Geriatrico dell’Emilia-Romagna e della Repubblica di San Marino”, Bologna, Rimini, Repubblica di S. Marino, 20–22 maggio 1992; pp. 17–26

80. Manfredi R, Mastroianni A, Chiodo F. Infezioni potenzialmente mortali nell’anziano. La raccolta dei campioni biologici; procedura ed interpretazione. Atti “Corso di Aggiornamento Gerontologico-Geriatrico dell’Emilia-Romagna e della Repubblica di San Marino”, Bologna, Rimini, Repubblica di S. Marino, 20–22 maggio 1992; pp. 27–34

81. Manfredi R, Addome. Apparato digerente, in: Trattamento e prevenzione delle Infezioni in Geriatria. Pharma Project Group (PPG), Saronno (VA) 2004, pp. 269–283

82. Manfredi R, Addome. Cavità peritoneale, in: Trattamento e prevenzione delle Infezioni in Geriatria, Pharma Project Group (PPG), Saronno VA) 2004, pp. 285 – 299

83. Manfredi R. Calza L. HIV infection in the elderly: emerging issues and perspectives, in: Progress in AIDS Research, New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2005, pp. 223–251

84. Manfredi R. Influenza dei polli? Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma, 2006, pp. XII+79

85. Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Epidemics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Most recent findings on prion disease. Recenti Prog Med. 2001;92:140–9

86. Manfredi R, Calza L. “Mad cow” disease: scientific novelty or academic terrorism? Recenti Prog Med. 2005;96:558–9

87. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Chiodo F. Bartonellosis: light and shadows in diagnostic and therapeutic issues. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:167–9

88. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S. Bartonellosis: suggestive case reports in adult and pediatric patients and therapeutic issues. Braz J Infect Dis. 2006;10:411–5

89. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Primary Cytomegalovirus infection in otherwise healthy adults with fever of unknown origin: a 3-year prospective survey. Infection. 2006;34:87–90

90. Manfredi R. Positive results of immunoglobulin G cytomegalovirus serologic testing and risk of severe non-AIDS-related complications in HIV-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 2015;211:1356–7

91. Manfredi R. Growing old with HIV. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005: 3298:73

92. Manfredi R, Monari P, Donzelli C, et al. Protease inhibitors in antiviral therapy of paediatric HIV disease. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87:814–6

93. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. A life-long antiretroviral treatment of congenital HIV disease, associated with a mixed fat redistribution syndrome and osteopenia already occurred during pre-pubertal age. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13:504–7

94. Manfredi R. A young patient with perinatal HIV infection treated for 17 consecutive years with antiretroviral therapy: extremely severe lipo-accumulation picture. Retrovirology 2007 (Suppl.); 187–8

95. Manfredi R, Chiodo D. Four-drug salvage antiretroviral treatment including nelfinavir and efavirenz in highly treated children with congenital HIV disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11:132–3

96. Manfredi R, Borderi M, Re MC, et al. A comparison of immunocomplex-dissociated serum HIV-1 p24 antigenemia and plasma HIV-1 viral load: assessment of 3,129 paired assays. New Microbiol. 1999;22:269–75

97. Manfredi R Management of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2000;6:579–84

98. Manfredi R. HIV disease and advanced age: an increasing therapeutic challenge. Drugs Ageing. 2002;19:647–69

99. Manfredi R. HIV infection and advanced age: emerging epidemiological, clinical, and management issues. Ageing Res Rev. 2004;3:31–54

100. Calza L, Manfredi R, Colangeli V, et al. Two-year treatment with rosuvastatin reduces carotid intima-media thickness in HIV type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy with asymptomatic atherosclerosis and moderate cardiovascular risk. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:547–56

101. Calza L, Pocaterra D, Pavoni M, et al. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin in 99 HIV-positive patients versus 51 HIV-negative healthy controls. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50:430–2

102. Calza L, Magistrelli E, Danese I, et al. Changes in serum markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in HIV-infected antiretroviral naive patients starting a treatment with abacavirl-amivudine or tenofovir-emtricitabine plus efavirenz. Curr HIV Res. 2016;14:61–70

103. Calza L, Manfredi R, Verucchi G. Myocardial infarction risk in HIV-infected patients: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical management. AIDS. 2010;24:789–802

104. Manfredi R, Mastroianni A, Coronado OV, Chiodo F. Hyperuricemia and progression of HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996;12:318–9

105. Manfredi R. Ipertrigliceridemia in corso di infezione da HIV trattata con farmaci antiretrovirali. Ruolo della supplementazione con esteri etilici di acidi grassi polinsaturi. Rivista di Nutrizione Parenterale ed Enterale. 2004;13:45–52

106. Manfredi R, Calza L Chiodo F. Polyunsaturated ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids in HIV-infected patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia: comparison with dietary and lifestyle changes, and fibrate therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 ;36:878–80

107. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. A case-control study of HIV-associated pancreatic abnormalities during HAART era. Focus on emerging risk factors and specific management. Eur J Med Res. 2004;9:537–44

108. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Gynecomastia, lipodystrophy syndrome, and dyslipidemia occurring or worsening during antiretroviral regimens other than protease inhibitor-based ones. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;35:99–102

109. Manfredi R, Calza L. Chiodo F. An observational study of subcutaneous multiple lipomatosis in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Possible correlations with metabolic abnormalities and pathogenetic insights, in: Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12:172–3

110. Calza L, Manfredi R, Colangeli V, et al. Polymiositis associated with HIV infection during immune restoration indiced by highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Experim Rheumatol. 2005; 22:651

111. Manfredi R. HIV disease, antiretroviral treatment and the liver-emerging problems. Recenti Prog Med. 2003;94:149–53

112. Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Hyperlactataemia and lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Clin Nutr. 2005;24:5–15

113. Calza L, Manfredi R, Mastroianni A, et al. Osteonecrosis and highly active antiretroviral therapy during HIV infection: report of a series and literature review. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2001;15:385–9

114. Manfredi R, Dentale N, Calza L. Spontaneous clearance of chronic hepatitis C infection in a patient with a 20-year-old HIV-hepatitis C co-infection and chronic active hepatitis. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23: 48–50

115. Dentale N, Manfredi R. Therapeutic use of interferons and their toxicity. Focus on peripheral neuropathy. Recenti Prog Med. 2007;98:329–34

116. Chiodo F, Costigliola P Ricchi E, et al. AZT therapy in HIV infected people: efficacy and side effects Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montréal (Canada), 4–9 giugno 1989; pp. 408–9

117. Manfredi R, Calza L. Recent availability of two novel, fixed formulations of antiretroviral nucleoside analogues: a 12-month prospective, open-label survey of their practical use and therapeutic perspectives in antiretroviral-naive and experienced patients. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22:279–90

118. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Efavirenz versus nevirapine in current clinical practice: a prospective, open-label observational study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;35:492–502

119. Manfredi R, Calza L, Marinacci G, et al. Raltegravir use prospectively assessed in a major HIV outpatient clinic in Italy: sample population, virological-immunological activity, and tolerability profile. Infez Med. 2014;22:288–95

120. Manfredi R, Calza L, Marinacci G, et al. A prospective evaluation of maraviroc administration in patients with advanced HIV disease and multiple comorbidities: focus on efficacy and tolerability issues. Infez Med. 2015;23:36–43

121. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Three to seven concurrent AIDS-defining disorders at first hospitalization of AIDS presenters as an unexpected emerging feature during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy AIDS. 2002;16:2356–8

122. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Calza L, et al. Bladder carcinoma and HIV infection during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: A rare, but intriguing association. Two case reports and literature review. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:566–70

123. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Fasulo G. HIV-associated early gastric adenocarcinoma successfully cured with surgery, and followed over eight years Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:501–4

124. Manfredi R, Fulgaro C, Sabbatani S, et al. Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists. Cancer Detect Prev. 2006;30:20–3

125. Manfredi R, Tadolini M, Fortunato L, et al. Rituximab alone proves effective in the treatment of refractory, severe stage III AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s paediatric lymphoma. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26;17:2146–8

126. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Chiodo F. Abvanced acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) during HAART-treated HIV diseases, manifesting inistailly as a thyroid mass. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:781–3

127. Manfredi R, Cascavilla A, Magistrelli E, et al. A patient with a 12-year history characterized by four non-AIDS-related malignancies, occurring before and after the disclosure of HIV infection. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015;30:459–61

128. Manfredi R. Non-AIDS-associated cancer disorders. A novel scenario after over thirty years from HIV discovery? Clinical experience and literature appraisal. Recenti Progr Med .2015;106:402–6

129. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. The effects of alternative treatments for HIV disease on recommended pharmacological regimens. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000;13:281–5

130. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Calza L. Antiretroviral therapy voluntarily taken at half-dosage, but fully effective after 6–10 years: a provocative issue for adherence requirements: case report Curr HIV Res. 2008;6:171–2

131. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Fulgaro C, et al. A very particular case of long-term non-progressor: nineteen consecutive years of follow-up in the absence of any detectable HIV-1 viraemia Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:784–5

132. Manfredi R. Hyperinflation of quoted co-authors in observational and clinical studies, intercohort and pooled analyses, in the field of HIV disease. An increasing worrying phenomenon for its clinical consequences and the degeneration of the role of authorship J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:56–8

133. Manfredi R, Coronado OV, Mastroianni A, et al. Concurrent infectious mononucleosis and measles: a potentially life-threatening asscoiation sharing underlying immunodeficiency. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:470–1

134. Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome associated with parvovirus B19 in an adult female. Presse Med. 2001;30:1354

135. Attard L, Bonvicini F, Gelsomino F, et al. Paradoxical response to intravenous immunoglobulin in a case of Parvovirus B19-associated chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Virol. 2015;62:54–7

136. Chiodo F, Manfredi R, Antonelli P, et al. Potential benefit of acyclovir for chickenpox acquired from household contacts. The Italian Acyclovir-Chickenpox Study Group. J Chemother. 1995;7:62–6

137. Manfredi R, Chiodo F, Titone L, et al. Chickenpox complications among immunocompetent hospitalized children in Italy. Acyclovir-Chickenpox Italian Study Group. Pediatr Med Chir. 1997;19:99–104

138. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Varicella in immunocompetent children in the first two years of life: role of treatment with oral acyclovir. Italian Acyclovir-Chickenpox Study Group. J Chemother. 1997;9:199–202

139. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Acyclovir therapy for immunocompetent children with chickenpox. Acyclovir-chickenpox Italian Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:1261–2

140. Manfredi R. Presumed acute pancreatitis during chickenpox infection in an otherwise healthy male. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:102–3

141. Manfredi R, Zucchini A, Azzaroli L, et al. Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism associated with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency. Role of treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone. J Endocrinol Invest. 1993;16:709–13

142. Azzaroli L, Zucchini A, Manfredi R, et al. Clinical and diagnostic approach to children of low stature. Evaluation of a 24-month hGH treatment of patients with growth impairment of diverse etiopathogenesis. Pediatr Med Chir. 1992;14:279–83

143. Di Fiore MT, Manfredi R, Marri L, et al. Elevation of transaminases as an early sign of late-onset glycogenosis type II. Eur J Pediatr. 1993;152:784

144. Di Fiore MT, Manfredi R, Marri L, et al. Acid maltase deficiency in childhood. Early diagnosis and clinical follow-up of late-onset glycogen storage disease type II. Acta Neurol (Napoli). 1993;15:258–6

145. Zucchini A, Manfredi G, Azzaroli L, et al. Biosynthetic growth hormone (GH) in the treatment of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. 1990;370:195–6

146. Zucchini A, Manfredi R. Schoenlein-Henoch syndrome and salmonella infection: a new association? Minerva Pediatr. 1992;44:559–63

147. Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Fattori di crescita mielo-monocitari in Infettivologia.Accademia Nazionale di Medicina, Genova, 1995, pp. 1–45

148. Manfredi R, Cariani T, Latini F, et al. Recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of HIV-related leucopenia. Acta Paediatr. 1995;84:943–4

149. Manfredi R, Re MC, Furlini G, et al. In vivo effects of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF), alone and associated with zidovudine, on HIV-1 replication. New Microbiol. 1997;20:345–50

150. Chiodo F. Manfredi R, Zucchini A. An open comparative study of sulbactam/ampicillin vs mezlocillin in adult and pediatric patients. Efficacy and tolerability. Minerva Med. 1991;82:387–94

151. Manfredi R, Ambrosioni G, Bernardi F, et al. Profilo di efficacia e tollerabilità della sultamicillina nella terapia delle infezioni delle vie respiratorie inferiori nel bambino. Farmaci & Terapia. 1991;8 (Suppl. 4):219–222

152. Manfredi R, Jannuzzi C, Mantero E, et al. Clinical comparative study of azithromycin versus erythromycin in the treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in children J Chemother. 1992;4:364–70

153. Manfredi R, Nanetti A. An active microbiological surveillance project at an Italian teaching hospital: microbial isolates, recent epidemiological trends, major clinical concerns, and antimicrobial susceptibility rates during a four-year period. Infez Med. 2009;17:219–27

154. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Dal Monte P, et al. Increasing pathomorphism of pulmonary tuberculosis: an observational study of slow clinical, microbiological and imaging response of lung tuberculosis to specific treatment. Which role for linezolid? Braz J Infect Dis. 2009;13:297–303

155. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Morelli S, et al. A decade surveillance study of Mycobacterium xenopi disease and antimicrobial susceptibility levels in a reference teaching hospital of northern Italy: HIV-associated versus non-HIV-associated infection. HIV Clin Trials. 2004;5:206–15

156. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Valentini R, et al. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of AIDS-related Mycobacterium kansasii infection during the HIV pandemic: an 11-year follow-up study. HIV Med. 2004;5:431–6

157. Manfredi R, Legnani G, Mastroianni A, et al. Septic arthritis in the setting of HIV disease. A case report and literature review. Infez Med. 1997;5:52–6

158. Manfredi R, Legnani G, Mastroianni A, et al. Haemophilus influenzae septic arthritis and HIV disease. Br J Rheumatol. 1997;36:1027–8

159. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Nanetti A, et al. A puzzling microbiological and clinical discrepancy in the management of acute, severe skin-soft tissue and joint staphylococcal infection. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to glycopeptides, versus in vivo clinical efficacy of linezolid alone. Infez Med. 2006;14:157–64

160. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Frank G, et al. Linezolid in the treatment of severe central nervous system infections resistant to recommended antimicrobial compounds. Infez Med. 2005;13:112–9

161. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Chiodo F. Severe staphylococcal knee arthritis responding favourably to linezolid, after glycopeptide-rifampicin failure: a case report and literature review. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:513–7

162. Manfredi R. Therapeutic perspectives of linezolid in the management of infections due to multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens. Recenti Prog Med. 2007;98:143–54

163. Manfredi R. Linezolid activity against disseminated Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and central nervous system abscesses: focus on early drug myelotoxicity. Curr Drug Saf. 2007;2:141–5

164. Manfredi R. Update on the appropriate use of linezolid in clinical practice. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2006;2:455–64

165. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Marinacci G, et al. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and multiple brain abscesses in an immunocompetent host. Favorable response to combination linezolid-meropenem treatment. J Chemother. 2006;18:331–3

166. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Frank G, et al. Capnocytophaga spp. brain abscess in an immunocompetent host: problems in antimicrobial chemotherapy and literature review. J Chemother. 2004;16:497–501

167. Manfredi R, Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-positive cocci in the third millennium: novel pharmacological weapons and their therapeutic perspectives, in: Advances in Medicine and Biology, volume 20, Nova Science Publishers New York (USA), 2011, pp. 105– 127

168. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Attard L, et al. The “Great Imitator.” Syphilis as causative agent of isolated, concurrent, acute hepatitis and meningitis. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 2005;5:261–4

169. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Pocaterra D, et al. Syphilis does not seem to involve virological and immunological course of concurrent HIV disease. AIDS. 2006;20:305–6

170. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Attard L, et al. Secondary syphilis presenting with acute severe hepatic involvement in a patient with undiagnosed HIV disease. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19:545–9

171. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Neurosyphilis in a young adult: very early tertiary syphilis? Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:832–4

172. Calza L, Manfredi R, Marinacci G, et al. Efficacy of penicillin G benzathine as antimicrobial treatment of cutaneous secondary syphilis in patients with HIV infection. J Chemother. 2002;14:533–4

173. Manfredi R, Beltrami C, D’Antuono A, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and their relationship with sexual behaviour and condom use, in a cohort of teenagers referring to a STD centre. A nine-year, prospective study. Infez Med. 2001;9:147–53

174. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in the Bologna metropolitan area, northern Italy: importance of counselling and prophylactic measures for the male homo/bisexual population. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:845–8

175. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Chiodo F. Long-term “self-managed “immunosoppressive treatment resulting in death due to fulminant hepatitis B: madical malpractice or patient’s autolesioniam? Clin Drug Invest. 2005;25:615–20

176. Verucchi G, Calza L, Trevisani F, et al. Human herpesvirus-related Kaposi’s sarcoma after liver transplantation successfully treated with cidofovir and liposomal daunorubicin. Transpl Infect Dis. 2005;7:34–7

177. Manfredi R. AIDS and opportunistic visceral mycoses. A diagnostic and therapeutic update. Recenti Prog Med. 1998;89:657–67

178. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Dual Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans fungaemia in an AIDS presenter: a unique disease association in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51:1135–1137

179. Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Mazzoni A, Mastroianni A, Chiodo F The incidence, etiology and clinical significance of visceral mycoses in patients with AIDS. Minerva Med. 1993;84:383–91

180. Manfredi R, Calza L. Concurrence of two different opportunistic mycoses complicated by visceral dissemination diagnosed in “AIDS presenter” patients: candidiasis and cryptococcosis. J Chemother. 2007;19:350–1

181. Manfredi R. Effects of the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the temporal trend of diagnosis of AIDS and AIDS-defining disorders. Infez Med. 2000;8:134–138

182. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Role of fluconazole in the management of AIDS-related cryptococcosis, according to daily dosing. Chemotherapy. 1998;44:206–14

183. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Case-control study of amphotericin B in a triglyceride fat emulsion versus conventional amphotericin B in patients with AIDS. Pharmacotherapy. 1998;18:1087–92

184. Manfredi R, Fulgaro C, Sabbatani S, et al. Emergence of amphotericin B-resistant Cryptococcus laurentii meningoencephalitis shortly after treatment for Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in a patient with AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20:227–32

185. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Pavoni M, et al. Voriconazole proves effective in long-term treatment of a cerebral cryptococcoma in a chronic nephropathic HIV-negative patient, after fluconazole failure. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:165–71

186. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S. Severe Candida albicans panophthalmitis treated with all available and potentially effective antifungal drugs: fluconazole, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:950–1

187. Manfredi R. Echinocandine oggi. Microbiologia Medica. 2009;24:115–23

188. Manfredi R, Mastroianni, Coronado OV, Chiodo F. Imported tropical diseases in subjects with HIV infection. Panminerva Med. 1998;40:72–4

189. Manfredi R, Di Bari MA, Calza L, et al. American cutaneous leishmaniasis as a rare imported disease in Europe: a case report favourably treated with antimonial derivatives. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17:793–5

190. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S. Clozapine-related agranulocyosis ssociated with fever of unknown origin, protective hospitalisation, and multiple adverse events related to the adminidtration of empiric antimicrobial treatment. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16:1285–9

191. Manfredi R. A woman with multiple autoimmune diseases: pathologic correlations and complications. Gac Med Mex. 2009;145:347–8

192. Manfredi R, Dentale N, Fortunato L, et al. Severe pneumococcal meningitis heralding a deep hypogammaglobulinaemia related to common variable immunodeficiency, at the age of 27 years. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36:756–8

193. Sabbatani S, Baldi E, Manfredi R, et al. Admission of foreign citizens to the general teaching hospital of Bologna, northeastern Italy: an epidemiological and clinical survey. Braz J Infect Dis. 2006;10:66–77

194. Sabbatani S, Baldi E. Manfredi R. Time trends in health care needs of non-EU citizens from developing countries, admitted to a general hospital in northern Italy. Infez Med. 2007;15:242–9

195. Sabbatani S, Baldi E, Manfredi R. Causes of hospitalization among extra-European Union children in a large hospital of Northern Italy, in a five-year observation period. Braz J Infect Dis. 2007;11:6–8

196. Manfredi R. Antibiotic resistance and community-acquired infections. Recenti Progr Med. 2002;93:149–56

197. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Biagetti C, Chiodo F. Antiretroviral Therapy in the real world: population-based pharmacoeconomic analysis of administration of Anti-HIV regimens to 990 patients. Clin Drug Investig. 2005;25:527–35

198. Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. First-line efavirenz versus lopinavir-ritonavir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy for naive patients. AIDS. 2004;18:2331–3

199. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Agostini D. Trend of mortality observed in a cohort of drug addicts of the Metropolitan area of Bologna, North-Eastern Italy, during a 25-year period. Collegium Anthropologicum. 2006:30:477–88

200. Manfredi R. Rivisitazione di un servizio di Day-Hospital di Malattie Infettive sulla base della storia naturale dell’infezione da HIV nel’era delle potenti terapie antirertrovirali di combinazione. Farmeconomia e Percorsi Terapeutici. 2010;11:47–9

201. Manfredi R. University Medicine in Italy: an exemplary “case report” of several unresolved criticities. Clinical Management Issues. 2010:4;145–155

202. Manfredi R. Lights and shadows of a profession-of a book by Giuseppe D’Agata “Il medico della mutua” (Health insurance physician). Recenti Prog Med. Jul-Aug 2004;95:388–90

203. Manfredi R The diseases and ailments which Friar Jacopone requested due to an excess of charity (Laude XLVIII). Recenti Prog Med. 2007;9:471–4

204. Manfredi R. Medicina e letteratura: le opere di Massimo Bontempelli. Medicina Narrativa. 2009;4:17–24

205. Manfredi R, Georges Canguilheim, Sulla Medicina. Scritti 1955–1989. Medicina Narrativa. 2009;2: 143–9

206. Manfredi R. Augusto Murri: Analysis of medical systems, and the basis of modern clinical methodology. Infez Med. 2010;18:132–7

207. Manfredi R. Mad, mad for ever. Madness according to Luigi Pirandello. Recenti Prog Med. 2008 Feb;99(2):112–3.

208. Manfredi R. Chlamydia pneumoniae: un patogeno emergente. Giornale di Malattie Infettive e Parassitarie. 1994;46:32–42

209. Manfredi R, Ricchi E, Costigliola P, et al. Monitoring of several hematological parameters of the erythroid series in patients with HIV infection treated with zidovudine. Recenti Progr Med. 1992;83:361–6

210. Gigliotti F, Limper AH, Wright T. Pneumocystis carinii. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014;4: a019828

211. Veljkovic N, Branch DR, Metlas R, et al. Antibodies reactive with C-terminus of the second conserved region of HIV-1gp120 as possible prognostic marker and therapeutic agent for HIV disease. J Clin Virol. 2004;31:S39–44

212. Bernabeo RA. Ricordo di Vincenzo Busacchi. Med Secoli. 1992;4:85–93

213. Gentili A, Arrighi L, Spisni R, et al. December 27th, 1899–2019: the first spinal anesthesia in Italy is 120 years old. Minerva Anestesiol. 2019;85:1373–4

214. Corsini F, Manfredi G. Blood level and urinary excretion of bromine after oral administration of sodium bromide. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1957;39:695–707

215. Corsini F. Changes in aminoaciduria and serum transaminase activity after parenteral administration of vitamin B6 Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1958;40:410–6.216

216. Corsini F. Determination of the quantitative value of pyrazinamide in the cerebrospinal fluid by means of ultraviolet ray absorption. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1956;38:6–12

217. Babini B, Manfredi G. Acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid in the premature newborn in the first week of life. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1959;35:1659–62

218. Corsini F, Manfredi G. Data on the blood protein picture in acute leukemia in children. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1957;39:840–50

219. Paolucci G, Vecchi V, Burnelli R, et al. Pediatric oncology: results and future therapeutic perspectives Minerva Pediatr. 1993;45:325–39

220. Pession A, Prete A, Rosito P, et al. Progress and prospectives in the use of hematopoietic stem cells in pediatric oncohematology. Minerva Pediatr. 1995;47:265–7642

221. Salvioli GP Jr, Manfredi G, Piazzi G. Determination of neuraminic acid in human eryrthrocytes. Boll Soc It Biol Sper. 1960;36:447–9

222. Salvioli GP Jr, Manfredi G, Piazzi G. Behavior of plasmatic and erythrocytic neuraminic acid in rheumatic diseases. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1960;36:1026–9

223. Salvioli GP Jr, Babini B, Manfredi G, Paolucci G. Gas chromatography in investigations on the fatty acids of plasma and erythrocytes in pediatrics. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1963;45:29-46

224. Cacciari E, Manfredi G. Some aspects of the blood in infantile diabetes (proteins, glycoproteins, lipoproteins, cholesterol). Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1960;42:138–43

225. Corsini F, Manfredi G, Pintozzi P. Observations on blood polyunsaturated fatty acids in conditions of lipidic balance. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1960;36:387–91

226. Cicognani A, Cacciari E, Vecchi V, et al. Differential effects of 18- and 24-Gy cranial irradiation on growth rate and growth hormone release in children with prolonged survival after acute lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Dis Child. 1988;142:1199–202

227. Salardi S, Cacciari E, Pascucci MG, et al. Microalbuminuria in diabetic children and adolescents. Relationship with puberty and growth hormone. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1990;79:437–43.

228. Balsamo A, Tassoni P, Colli C, et al. Response to growth hormone therapy in patients with hormone deficiency who at birth were small or appropriate in size for gestational age. J Pediatr. 1995;126:474–7

229. Manfredi R, Tumietto F, Azzaroli L, et al. Growth hormone (GH) and the immune system: impaired phagocytic function in children with idiopathic GH deficiency is corrected by treatment with biosynthetic GH. J Pediatr Endocrinol. 1994;7:245–51

230. Vangelista A, Tazzari R, Bonomini V. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy in 2 twin brothers. Nephron. 1988;50:79–80

231. Corsini F, Beccari A. Glycoproteins in the dystrophic infant. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1955;37:936–44

232. Rondinini B, Beccari A. Clinical and statistical data on the aid in various rural pediatric organizations of the Opera Nazionale Maternità ed Infanzia in Bologna. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1958;40:99–101

233. Beccari A, Cacciari E, Manfredi G. Study of proteins, lipoproteins and glycoproteins in exudative diathesis. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1958;40:453–9

234. Manfredi G. Presence of antibody fractions in the blood of the rabbit after antipertussis diffusible vaccination; electrophoretic research after adsorption with homologous antigens. Minerva Med. 1959;50:1101–2

235. Beccari A, Schiassi A. Results of the use of methaminodiaxepoxide by rectal route in a group of asubjects hospitalied in the Clinica Pediatrica di Bologna. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1963; 45:365–72

236. Rondinini B, Beccari A, Bacchiega M. The value of maternal work in recovery of the pioliomyelitic child (fron the experience of the Antipoliomyelitic centre of Bologna. Lattante. 1965;36: 143–6

237. Rondinini B, Beccari A. Practical use of an attenuated live anti-rubella vaccine (Cendehill 5) in childhood. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1969;51:522–9

238. Rondinini B, Beccari A, Bacchiega M. The value of maternal work in recovery of the pioliomyelitic child (. Trial in 40 children of cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant. Minerva Pediatr. 1971;23:345–7

239. Zappulla F, Gatti M, Rocchi G, et al. Flavobacterium meningosepticum infection in a 19-month-old girl. Minerva Pediatr. 1979;3:679–82

240. Vandini S, Biagi C, Fischer M, et al. Impact of Rhinovirus Infections in Children. Viruses. 2019;11:521

241. Lanari M, Chiereghin A, Biserni GB, et al. Children and SARS-CoV-2 infection: innocent bystanders until proven otherwise. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020;26:1130–1132

242. Fantini MP, Reno C, Biserni GB, et al. Covid-19 and the re-opening of schools: a policy makers’ dilemma Ital J Pediatr. 2020;46:79

243. Comellini L. Nalidixic acid in urinary tract infections in childhood]. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1967;49:26–33

244. Comellini L, Santopadre I, Dallacasa P. Data on the prognosis and therapy of hemorrhagic acute glomerulonephritis in the pediatric age. Clin Pediatr (Bologna). 1969;51:409–21

245. Santopadre I, Comellini L. Nephropathies and intercurrent infections. Giorn Mal Infett Parassit. 1968;20:740–3

246. Ganassi A, Mazzacuva D. On the cyto-structural changes induced by Salvioli’s antitubercular diffusing vaccine (S.D.V.) in white rats. Pathologica. 1960;52:483–98

247. Walia P, Minaci A, Jonews MH, et al. Influence of combined Hill-Sachs and Bony Bankart defects on range of motion and anterior instability of the shoulder in a finite element model. Arthroscopy. 2015;11:2119–27

248. Veronesi S, Palmerio B, Negosanti M, et al. Urticaria and giardiasis. Dermatologica. 1983;166:42–3

249. Negosanti M, Cevenini R, Ghetti P, et al. Severe herpetic gingivostomatitis associated with pemphigoides. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120:540–2

250. Manfredi R. Marinacci G, Calza L, et al. Diffuse cutaneous dissemination of visceral leishmaniasis during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite negligible immunodeficiency: repeated failure of liposomal amphotericin B administration, followed by successful long-term pentamidine and paromomycin administration. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;31:590–2

251. Dika E, Ravaioli GM, Fanti PA, et al. Spitz nevi and other spitzoid neoplasms in children: Overview of incidence data and diagnostic criteria. Pediatr Dermatol. 2017;34:25–32

252. Filippi F, Sechi A, Baraldi C, et al. Localized cold urticaria after vaccination in a child: a case and literature review. Allergol Int. 2020;69:645–647

253. Di Altobrando A, Vincenzi C, La Placa M, ET AL. When sneakers turn out to be false friends: Allergic contact dermatitis to chromium in a 4-year-old child with atopic dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2020;82:320–1

254. Bardazzi F, Magnano M, Campanati A, et al. Biologic therapies in HIV-infected patients with psoriasis: An Italian experience. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;97:989–990

255. Avoni A, Borea G, Chiodo F, et al. AIDS: An assessment of the potential occupational risk in the dental environment for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. Minerva Stomatol. 1986;35:941–6

256. Bagattoni S, Lardani L, Gatto MR, et al. Effects of audiovisual distraction in children with Down syndrome during dental restorations: a randomised clinical trial Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2020;21:153–6

257. Manfredi R, Calza L, Verucchi G. The health professional in the dental/oral field and exposure to risk of infection: epidemiology and prevention. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007;29:11–20

258. Manfredi R. Occupational exposure and prevention guidelines in dental and stomatological settings – A literature review. Infectio. 2010;1:68–83

259. Cristino S, Legnani PP, Leoni E. Plan for the control of Legionella infections in long-term care facilities: role of environmental monitoring. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012;215:279–85

260. Appolloni L, Locchi F, Girometti N, et al. Integration among hospital pharmacists and Infectious Diseases physicians in the outpatient management of HIV infection. Infez Med. 2014;22:19–25

261. Manfredi R, Marinacci G, Tadolini M. et al. Periodic monitoring of infectious disorders among patients waiting for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A 31-month single-centre survey. Antimicrobial Chemotherapy in Clinical Practice. 2003;4:36-37

262. Calise F, Capussotti L, Caterino S, et al. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in adults. Outline of the principal erioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in adults. Outline of the principal recommendations. National reference guidelines. Minerva Anestesiol. 2009;75:543–52

263. Buda S, Riefolo A, Biscione R, et al. Clinical experience with polyclonal IgM-enriched immunoglobulins in a group of patients affected by sepsis after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005;19:440–5

264. Torricelli P, Fini M, Giavaresi G, et al. In vitro models to test orthopedic biomaterials in view of their clinical application in osteoporotic bone. Int J Artif Organs. 2004;27:658–63

265. Grassi F, Cattini L, Gambari L, et al. T cell subsets differently regulate osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2016;10:305–14

266. Manfredi R, Sudanese A, Giunti A, et al. Prevention and treatment of infections in orthopedic surgery. The role of antibiotic-loaded cements. Recenti Prog Med. 1999;90:425–9

267. Laus M, Pignatti G, Alfonso C, et al. Anterior surgery for the treatment of soft cervical disc herniation Chir Organi Mov. 1992;77:101–9

268. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Trapani F, et al. Aggressive, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma after a 46-year-old history of chronic osteomyelitis and local infectious complications. Clinical Management Issues. 2018;12: 31–6

269. Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Patologie infettive e parassitarie “da importazione” nel bambino immigrato da Paesi extracomunitari. Un’indagine in Emilia-Romagna Atti Congresso “Il futuro della Pediatria e delle Specialità pediatriche”, e Convegno “La Pediatria nel Servizio materno-infantile”, Bologna, 15–18 ottobre 1991; pP. 382–5

270. Manfredi R, Di Bari MA, Chiodo F. Patologie non più esotiche. Atti 4° Convegno Nazionale “Nuove Tecnologie in Pediatria”, Reggio Emilia, 8–9 novembre 1991; pP. 93–111

271. Manfredi R, Chiesi F, Cesari L, et al. Infezione da HIV ed AIDS quali motivi di ricorso alla Previdenza Sociale a Bologna. Atti del 28° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana per lo Studio delle Malattie Infettive e Parassitarie, Genova, 30 settembre-3 ottobre 1995; pp. 159–160

272. Demaria F, Folesani L, Bertoni R, et al. Strategia vaccinale e stato immunitario verso il morbillo nella popolazione pediatrica della U.S.L. 37 – Faenza Atti “Convegno Pediatrico di Aggiornamento” della Società Italiana di Pediatria, Rimini, 22–23 maggio 1992; pag. 157–159.

273. Ricchi E, Manfredi R, Scarani P, et al. Cutaneous cryptococcosis and AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:335–6

274. Verucchi G, Calza L, Biagetti C, et al. Ultrastructural liver mitochondrial abnormalities in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;35:326–8

275. Manfredi R, Salfi N, Pasquinelli G. Lymph node dissemination of a serious Pneumocystis carinii respiratory infection in AIDS: histopathological and ultrastructural aspects. Pathologica. 1998;90:383–7

276. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Gianelli U, et al. Epstein-Barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and local polymorphic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with HIV disease. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2007;6:255–9

277. Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Fraternali Orcioni G, et al. Fatal long-term immunosuppressive therapy with uncontrolled repeat prescription. Ther Drug Monit. 2006;28:463–7

278. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Fabbrizio B, et al. A “mysterious “intrabdominal mass with infectious origin, in a patient with HIV infection under control. A “delayed diagnosis” allows to enlarge our knowledge, by assessing a rare dusease. Clinical Management Issues. 2011;5:95–106

279. Manfredi R, Mazzoni A, Pileri SA, et al. Simultaneous occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated histoplasmosis in an Italian patient with HIV infection. Infection. 1994;22:224–5

280. Manfredi R, Pieri F, Pileri SA, et al. The changing face of AIDS-related opportunism: cryptococcosis in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Case reports and literature review. Mycopathologia. 1999;148:73–8

281. Brandi G, Calabrese C, Manfredi R, et al. HIV enteropathy: undescribed ultrastructural changes of duodenal mucosa and their regression after triple antiviral therapy. A case report. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:617–22

282. Caio G, Volta U, Sapone A, et al. Celiac disease: a comprehensive review. BMC Med. 2019;17:142–8

283. Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Lammers KM, et al. Antibiotics and probiotics in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3306–13

284. Rizzello F, Calabrese C, Salice M, et al. Covid-19 in IBD: The experience of a single tertiary IBD center. Dig Liver Dis. 2021;53:271–6

285. Rinninella E, Cintoni M, Raoul P, et al. Food Components and Dietary Habits: Keys for a Healthy Gut Microbiota Composition. Nutrients. 2019;11:2393

286. Beghetti I, Biagi E, Martini S, et al. Human Milk’s Hidden Gift: Implications of the Milk Microbiome for Preterm Infants’ Health. Nutrients. 2019;11:2944

287. Manfredi R, Vezzadini P, Costigliola O, et al. Elevated plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in AIDS patients with refractory idiopathic diarrhoea. Effects of treatment with octreotide. AIDS. 1993;7:223–6

288. Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Ortolani P, et al. Myopericarditis during a primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in an otherwise healthy young adult. An unusual and insidious complication. Case report and a 60-year literature review. Infez Med. 2012;20:75–81

289. Cenko E, Yoon J, Kedev S, et al. Sex Differences in Outcomes After STEMI: Effect Modification by Treatment Strategy and Age. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178:632–639

290. Cellini M, Possati GL, Puddu P, et al. Interferon alpha in the therapy of conjunctival lymphoma in an HIV+ patient. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1996;6:475–7

291. Righi M, Manfredi R, Farneti G, et al. Clindamycin/cefonicid in head and neck oncologic surgery: one-day prophylaxis is as effective as a three-day schedule. J Chemother. 1995;7:216–20

292. Righi M, Manfredi R, Farneti G, et al. Short-term versus long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis in oncologic head and neck surgery. Head Neck. 1996;18:399–404

293. Rinaldi R, Manfredi R, Azzimondi G, et al. Recurrent ‘migrainelike’ episodes in patients with HIV disease. Headache. 1997;37:443–8

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Figure 1. The entrance pavilion of the Pediatric Clinics in the year 1977. Its appearance did not change until now, when the pavilion hosts some offices and the main lecture hall of all the present Pediatric Departments [1,2]

Figure 2-10. Health care assistance devoted to young patients victim of poliomyelitis, also included in really visionary rehabilitation projects started by Prof. Demos Gotti in the pediatric clinics of Bologna [7,8]

Figure 11-14. Second inauguration, 6 March 6, 1984, after the earliest inaguration of year 1969.

Figure 15. Third inauguration, November 23, 1999. The novel wing photographed from the entrance of the Obstetrics Pavilion.

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