Hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke and its treatment during thrombolysis

Maurizio Paciaroni, Luca Masotti, Valeria Caso

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v2i1S.39


Haemorrhagic transformation (HT) of brain infarction or hemorrhagic infarction is a complication of acute ischemic stroke, especially in cardioembolic stroke, and represents the most feared complication of thrombolysis. HT is a multifocal secondary bleeding into brain infarcts with innumerable foci of capillary and venular extravasation either remaining as discrete petechiae or emerging to form confluent purpura. HT is evidenced as a parenchymal area of increased density within an area of low attenuation in a typical vascular distribution on non-contrasted CT scans and is subdivided into two major categories on the basis of standardised definition: haemorrhagic infarct (HI) and parenchymal haematoma (PH). PH has been associated to poor outcome in ischemic stroke patients. Thus, its prevention, early detection and adequate treatment represent key points in the management of acute stroke.


Haemorrhagic transformation; Ischemic stroke; Thrombolysis

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