Indications, time and types of urgent and elective neurosurgical approach in intracranial spontaneous haemorrhage

Rosina Amoroso, Rolando Gagliardi



Up to now, the possibility of neurosurgical approach remains one of the main key points in acute management of non traumatic intracranial haemorrhage. The aims of neurosurgical evacuation are represented by stopping bleeding, reducing haematoma enlargement, endocranial hypertension and mass effect, and improving cerebral perfusion. In the acute phase of intracranial bleeding, neurosurgeons are called to take critical decisions about the indication or exclusion of surgical approach and this kind of choices can be very difficult. Only a minority of patients suffering from intraparenchimal bleeding undergo urgent surgical evacuation. This decision is based on the presence or the absence of mass effect, occlusion of liquoral flow associated to impairment of vigilance, sites of hematoma surgically accessible and good performance status. In patients suffering for subarachnoid haemorrhage, mainly due to rupture of aneurisms or artero-venous malformations, the percentage of surgery increases together with the possibility of the elective approach.


Neurosurgery; Intracranial haemorrhage; Subarachnoid haemorrhage

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