Infectious diseases and pediatrics: a parallel scientific and health care pathway in the last two centurieshealthcare pathway in the last two centuries

Roberto Manfredi



Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases reached an autonomous healthcare assistance and scientific pathway in a different mode when comparing the English-American medical world, and the South-European countries, including Italy. Like the late recognition of childhood as human beings deserving a specific assistance by specialist physicians (pediatricians) in the English-American health care system, also Infectious Diseases developed as a subspecialty of General Internal Medicine in the English-American countries, while played their autonomous role especially in some European countries including Italy, where some prominent academic and assistance centres of Infectious Diseases had their roots just in some Pediatric references centres located throughout the country. Aim of our work is also to explore the unmet needs of pediatric infectious diseases assistance still relevant in the third millennium, both in the industrialized worlds, and in developing countries.


Infectious Diseases; Pediatrics; Healthcare pathways

Full Text



  • Chiodo F, Manfredi R. Infettivologia. In: Gaburro D, Paolucci G, Salvioli GP, Volpato S (Eds.). Pediatria Generale e Specialistica. Napoli: Guido Gnocchi Editore – Casa Editrice Idelson, 1997; pp. 863-938
  • Bonomini V, Campieri C, Scolari MP, et al. The age-old spirit of nephrology from the oldest university in the world. Am J Nephrol 1994; 14: 361-4;
  • Chiodo F, Manfredi R. I progressi della Medicina a Bologna: Sant’Orsola-Malpighi – Malattie Infettive. Bollettino delle Scienze Mediche 2007; 179: 51-66
  • Salvioli G. Salvioli diffusing vaccine in prophylactic antituberculous vaccination in humans. Minerva Med 1953; 19: 1313-22
  • Gotti D. Medical problems concerning the social rehabilitation of poliomyelitic patients. Clin Pediatr (Bologna) 1957; 39: 491-508
  • Gotti D. From acute anterior poliomyelitis to poliomyelitis-like infectious syndromes. Minerva Med 1966; 57: 3273-9
  • Gotti D, Monari E, Pezzoli A. Clinico-statistical findings on 445 cases of viral hepatitis in childhood. Clin Pediatr (Bologna) 1968; 50: 735-65
  • Newland JG, Banerjee R, Geber JS, et al. Antimicrobial stewardship in pediatric care: strategies and future directions. Pharmacotherapy 2012; 32: 735-43;
  • Hostetter MK. What we don’t see. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 1328-34;
  • Osler W. On the systolic brain murmur of children. Boston Med Surg J 1880; 103: 29-30;
  • Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2010; 375: 1969-87;
  • Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Fiorino S. Il ruolo delle infezioni malariche nello sviluppo antropologico. Rivista di Storia della Medicina 2009; 19: 135-65
  • Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Fiorino S. The Justinian plague. Infez Med 2012 20: 125-39
  • Ware J. On croup. Boston Med Surg J 1850; 42: 233-46;
  • Webster JO. Children’s diseases in Masachusetts. Boston Med Surg J 1873; 89: 173-81;
  • Ausubel JH, Meyer PS, Wernick IK. Death and human environment: the United States in the 20th century. Technol Soc 2001; 23: 131–146;
  • Current literature. Boston Med Surg J 1914; 170: 181
  • Provenzano RW, Wetterlow LH, Ipsen J. Pertussis immunization in pediatric practice in public health. N Engl J Med 1959; 261: 473-8;
  • McComb JA, Trafton MZ. Immune responses and reactions to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, with pertussis vaccine, aluminium phosphate precipitated. N Engl J Med 1950; 243: 442-4;
  • Lepow ML, Warren RJ, Gray N, et al. Effect of Sabin type 1 poliomyelitis vaccine administered by mouth to newborn infants. N Engl J Med 1961; 264: 1971-8;
  • Pagano JS, Plotkin SA, Koprowski H. Variations in the responses of infants to living attenuated polio virus vaccines. New Engl J Med 1961; 264: 155-63;
  • Katz SL, Kempe CH, Black FL, et al. Studies on an attenuated measles-virus vaccine. General summary and evaluation of the results of vaccine. N Engl J Med 1960; 263 :180-4;
  • Shannon JA. Medical research – some aspects than warrant public understanding. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 75-80;
  • Breman JG, Arita I. The confirmation and maintenance of smallpox eradication. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 1263-73;
  • Vaccination. Boston Med Surg J 1853; 49: 145
  • Peltola H, Kaythy H, Virtanen M, et al. Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae bacteremic infections with the capsula polysaccharide vaccine. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 1561-6;
  • Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1173-80;
  • Chiodo F, Ricchi E, Costigliola P, et al. Vertical transmission of HTLV-III. Lancet 1986; i:739;
  • Richardson V, Hernandez-Pichardo J, Quintanar-Solares M, et al. Effect on rotavirus vaccination on death from childhood diarrhea in Mexico. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 299-305;
  • Calza L, Manfredi R, Marinacci G, et al. Le malattie da prioni. La correlazione tra l’encefalopatia spongiforme bovina e la nuova variante della malattia di Creutzfeld-Jakob. Ann It Medicina Interna 1998; 13: 209-16
  • Calza L, Manfredi R, Verucchi G, et al. SARS: una nuova emergenza sanitaria mondiale. Recenti Progr Medicina 2003; 94: 284-94
  • Manfredi R, Calza L. Malattia della “mucca pazza”: novità scientifiche o terrorismo accademico? Recenti Progr Med 2005; 11: 558-9
  • Jefferson T, Frati D, Grasso E, et al. Aviaria. Influenza dei polli? Roma: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, 2006
  • Mazzoni A, Manfredi R. AIDS. Esiste ancora? Storia e Prevenzione. Bologna: Edizioni Studio Domenicano (ESD), 2007
  • Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R. The emerging of the fifth malaria parasite (Plasmodium knowlesi). A public health concern? Braz J Infect Dis 2010; 14: 299-309;
  • Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Anthrax. Recenti Prog Med 2001; 92: 717-26
  • Sparling PF. Bacterial virulence and pathogenesis: an overview. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5 (Suppl. 4): 637-46;
  • Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. HIV disease among immigrants coming to Italy from outside of the European Union: a case-control study of epidemiological and clinical features. Epidemiol Infect 2001; 127: 527-33;
  • Sabbatani S, Manfredi R, Legnani G, et al. Tuberculosis in a metropolitan area of Northern Italy; epidemiological trends and public health concerns. Eur J Epidemiol 2004; 19: 501-3;
  • Sabbatani S, Baldi E, Manfredi R. Causes of hospitalization among Extra-European Union children in a large Hospital of Northern Italy, in a five-year observation period. Braz J Infect Dis 2007; 11: 6-8;
  • Kluger MJ, KozakW, Conn CA, et al. The adaptive value of fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1996: 10: 1-20;
  • Mackowiak PA (Ed.). Fever: basic mechanisms and management. New York: Raven, 1991
  • Kluger MJ, Kozak W, Conn CA, et al. The adaptive value of fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1996; 10: 1-20;
  • Manfredi R, Coronado OV, Mastroianni A, et al. Concurrent infectious mononucleosis and measles: a potentially life-threatening association sarin underlying immunodeficiency. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003; 22: 470-1;
  • Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Primary Cytomegalovirus infection in otherwise healthy adults with fever of unknown origin: a 3-year prosepective survey. Infection 2006; 34: 87-90;
  • Manfredi R, Sabbatani S, Gianelli U, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and local polymorphic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with HIV disease. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 2007; 11: 255-9;
  • WHO. Removing obstacles to health development. WHO report on infectious diseases 1991; Geneva; WHO: 1999 Galazka A. The immunological basis for immunization series. Module 1: General immunology. Geneva: WHO, 1993


Abstract: 1270 views
HTML: 944 views
PDF: 120 views


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© SEEd srl