Dietary and lifestyle modification in metabolic syndrome: a review of randomized control trials in different population groups

Ishu Kataria, Ravinder Chadha, Renuka Pathak



The emergence of modernization coupled with sedentary lifestyle has resulted in the shift from the prevalence of diseases only due to under nutrition, to those caused by over nutrition. The augmentation of non-communicable diseases, thus, imposes double burden of disease, impeding the health of a nation. This upsurge has led to increase in prevalence and incidence of Metabolic syndrome which is a cluster of inter-related factors characterized by high fasting blood glucose, increased level of triglycerides, low levels of high density cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and abdominal obesity. The best way to combat this syndrome is to reduce the atherosclerotic risk, which can be carried out by modification in the diet and lifestyle – the first line of treatment of the syndrome. Thus, the present review was undertaken to understand the already existing as well as the current scenario specifically regarding the dietary and lifestyle interventions being carried out to overcome Metabolic syndrome. Of the randomized control trials reviewed, all except one reported improvement in Metabolic syndrome following intervention in diet and/or lifestyle modification either in certain components or overall syndrome within a period of 2 weeks–1 year. These interventions to alter diet and lifestyle focus on weight reduction, promotion of regular physical activity, reduction of substance abuse, effectiveness of specific food items along with regulation of genes and various inflammatory markers. They have the potential to succeed only if they are executed early, and thus, offer enough evidence to develop appropriate public policies. However, the issue that is of utmost significance is of sustainability and compliance, which eventually decides the long-term success or failure of an intervention.


Metabolic syndrome; Lifestyle; Intervention studies

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