Statins and Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathy

Mauro Turrin

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v12i1.1367

Abstract

Statins are a well-recognized cause of a variety of skeletal myopathic effects, which generally resolve when discontinuing the treatment. Among autoimmune manifestations associated with statins, there is immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM).

The present article summarizes the main features of statin-related IMNM, describing diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, treatment, and the main autoantibodies detected.

Statins are a well-recognized cause of a variety of skeletal myopathic effects, which generally resolve when discontinuing the treatment. Among autoimmune manifestations associated with statins, there is immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM).

The present article summarizes the main features of statin-related IMNM, describing diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, treatment, and the main autoantibodies detected.

Although it is impossible to define the precise number, it evident that more than 550 statin-related IMNM cases have been described in the literature. Among IMNM, two forms must be distinguished: with anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and with anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) antibodies. The differential diagnosis should be made between the IMNM and self-limited statin-related myopathy, drug-induced rhabdomyolysis, and nonautoimmune myopathies.

Patients who have failed to normalize high creatine phosphokinase (CPK) after statin withdrawal should be tested for anti-HMGCR antibodies and, if these are positive, undergo muscle biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of IMNM. Pharmacological therapy of IMNM, not yet based on evidence, involves the use of high-dose corticosteroids, immunosuppressant drugs used alone or in combination, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or plasmapheresis.

Keywords

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Dermatomyositis; Polymyositis; Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy; Anti-HMGCR antibodies

Full Text:

HTML PDF

References

  • Selva-O’Callaghan A, Alvarado-Cardenas M, Pinal-Fernández I, et al. Statin-induced myalgia and myositis: an update on pathogenesis and clinical recommendations. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018;14: 215-24; https://doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2018.1440206
  • Alfirevic A, Neely D, Armitage J, et al. Phenotype standardization for statin-induced myotoxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2014; 96: 470-6; https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2014.12
  • Hoogendijk JE, Amato AA, Lecky BR et al. 119th ENMC international workshop: trial design in adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, with the exception of inclusion body myositis, 10-12 October 2003, Narden, The Nederlands. Neuromuscul Disord 2004; 14: 337-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2004.02.006
  • Lundberg IE, Tjärnlund A, Bottai M, et al; International Myositis Classification Criteria Project consortium, The Euromyositis register and The Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort Biomarker Study and Repository (JDRG) (UK and Ireland). 2017 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76: 1955-64; https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211468
  • Allenbach Y, Benveniste O, Goebel HH, et al. Integrated classification of inflammatory myopathies. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2017; 43: 62-81; https://doi.org/10.1111/nan.12380
  • Selva-O’Callaghan A, Pinal-Fernandez I, Trallero-Araguás E, et al. Classification and management of adult inflammatory myopathies. Lancet Neurol 2018; 17: 816-28; https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30254-0
  • Pinal-Fernandez I, Casal-Dominguez M, Carrino JA, et al. Thigh muscle MRI in immune-mediated necrotising myopathy: extensive oedema, early muscle damage and role of anti-SRP autoantibodies as a marker of severity. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76: 681-7; http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210198
  • Padala S, Thompson PD. Statins as a possible cause of inflammatory and necrotizing myopathies. Atherosclerosis 2012; 222: 15-21; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.11.005
  • Noël B. Lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases related to statin therapy: a systematic review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007; 21: 17-24; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2006.01838.x
  • Turrin M, Martinelli S. Drug-induced lupus: simvastatin or amiodarone? A case report in elderly. Clinical Management Issues 2013; 7: 17-26; https://doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v7i1.644
  • Mohassel P, Mammen AL. Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy and anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. Muscle Nerve 2013; 48: 477-83; https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.23854
  • Orphanet. Elenco delle malattie rare e sinonimi: in ordine alfabetico. I Quaderni di Orphanet. June 2018. Available at www.orpha.net/orphacom/cahiers/docs/IT/Elenco_malattie_rare_in_ordine_alfabetico.pdf (last accessed October 2018)
  • Aubignat M, Schmidt J, Gourguechon C, et al. Myopathies à anticorps anti-HMGCR : à propos de 5 cas. La Revue de Médecine Interne 2018; 39 (Suppl 1): A227-A228; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revmed.2018.03.225
  • Mammen AL. Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 664-9; https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1515161
  • Albayda J, Christopher-Stine L. Identifying statin-associated autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Cleve Clin J Med 2014; 81: 736-41; https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.81a.13158
  • Mohassel P, Mammen AL. Anti-HMGCR myopathy. J Neuromuscul Dis 2018; 5: 11-20; https://doi.org/10.3233/JND-170282
  • Allenbach Y, Mammen AL, Benveniste O, et al; Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathies Working Group. 224th ENMC International Workshop: Clinico-sero-pathological classification of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies Zandvoort, The Netherlands, 14-16 October 2016. Neuromuscul Disord 2018; 28: 87-99; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2017.09.016
  • Turrin M, Martinelli S. Statin-induced rhabdomyolysis: polymyositis/dermatomyosytis or necrotizing autoimmune myopathy? Description of a clinical case in an elderly patient. Giornale Italiano dell’Arteriosclerosi 2017; 8: 83-8
  • Wu Y, Lach B, Provias JP, et al. Statin-associated autoimmune myopathies: A pathophysiologic spectrum. Can J Neurol Sci 2014; 41: 638-47; https://doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2014.22
  • Musset L, Allenbach Y, Benveniste O, et al. Anti-HMGCR antibodies as a biomarker for immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies: A history of statins and experience from a large international multi-center study. Autoimmun Rev 2016; 15: 983-93; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2016.07.023
  • Ohnuki Y, Suzuki S, Shiina T, et al. HLA-DRB1 alleles in immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Neurology 2016; 87: 1954-5; https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003160
  • Allenbach Y, Drouot L, Rigolet A, et al; French Myositis Network. Anti-HMGCR autoantibodies in European patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathies: inconstant exposure to statin. Medicine (Baltimore) 2014; 93: 150-7; https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000028
  • Meira Dias O, Guedes Baldi B, Nathan Costa A, et al. Interstitial lung disease with statin-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy responding to rituximab. Arch Bronconeumol 2016; 52: 395-7; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2015.10.011
  • Klein M, Mann H, Pleštilová L, et al. Increasing incidence of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy: single-centre experience. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2015; 54: 2010-4; https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kev229
  • Ramanathan S, Langguth D, Hardy TA, et al. Clinical course and treatment of anti-HMGCR antibody-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2015; 2: e96; https://doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000096
  • Alshehri A, Choksi R, Bucelli R, et al. Myopathy with anti-HMGCR antibodies: Perimysium and myofiber pathology. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2015; 2: e124; https://doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000124
  • Grable-Esposito P, Katzberg HD, Greenberg SA, et al. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statins. Muscle Nerve 2010; 41: 185-90; https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.21486
  • Kassardjian CD, Lennon VA, Alfugham NB, et al. Clinical features and treatment outcomes of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. JAMA Neurol 2015; 72: 996-1003; https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.1207
  • Ashton C, Junckerstorff R, Bundell C, et al. Treatment and outcomes in necrotising autoimmune myopathy: An Australian perspective. Neuromuscul Disord 2016; 26: 734-40; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2016.08.013
  • Woolley M, Stebbings S, Highton J. Statin-associated immune-mediated necrotising myopathy: a New Zealand case series showing possible overrepresentation in Pacific Islanders. Intern Med J 2018; 48: 32-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/imj.13575
  • Waters MJ, Limaye V. Clinico-serologic features of statin-induced necrotising autoimmune myopathy in a single-centre cohort. Clin Rheumatol 2018; 37: 543-7; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-017-3831-2
  • Folzenlogen D. A case of atorvastatin combined toxic myopathy and inflammatory myositis. J Clin Rheumatol 2001; 7: 340-5; https://doi.org/10.1097/00124743-200110000-00019
  • Young JB, Ghobrial II. Autoimmune statin-induced myopathy: a case report. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2015; 5: 28374; https://doi.org/10.3402/jchimp.v5.28374
  • Rugiero M, Bettini M, Bisonni A, et al. P5.24 Immune-mediated Necrotizing Myopathy Associated with Statins: Presentation of two cases and review of the literature. Neuromuscul Disord 2011; 21: 731; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2011.06.1053
  • Scripko PD, Amato AA, Puig A. Mystery case: a 63-year-old man with progressive proximal pain and weakness. Neurology 2014; 82: e26-9; https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000052
  • Patel S, Rohatgi A, Gupta P. Statin-triggered immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Neurol India 2016; 64: 562-4; https://doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.181571
  • Ogando S, Fischer H, Mailloux L, et al. Immune Mediated Necrotizing Myopathy case series [abstract]. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014; 9 (suppl 2). Abstract number: 545
  • Fernandes GH, Zanoteli E, Shinjo SK. Statin-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Mod Rheumatol 2014; 24: 862-4; https://doi.org/10.3109/14397595.2013.874739
  • Kuncova K, Sedlackova M, Vencovsky J, et al. Inflammatory myopathy associated with statins: report of three cases. Mod Rheumatol 2014; 24: 366-71; https://doi.org/10.3109/14397595.2013.852848
  • Khattri S. Statin-associated necrotizing myopathy in an older woman. J Musculoskel Med 2012; 29: 112-13
  • Vijiaratnam N, Jiang M, Wijeratne T. Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy: diagnostic challenges. American Research Journal of Medicine and Surgery 2015; 1: 7-9
  • Mygland Å, Ljøstad U, Krossnes BK. Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin. BMJ Case Rep 2014; 2014; https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-203094
  • Zḁber K, Śliwowska B, Jasiński T. Statin-induced autoimmune necrotizing myositis. Reumatologia 2015; 53: 341-4; https://doi.org/10.5114/reum.2015.57641
  • Kipfer S, Frigerio S, Hench J, et al. Immune-mediated necrotising myopathy linked to statin use. Lancet 2015; 386: e26; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60068-X
  • Shaver K, Sibley C. A case of mystery myopathy: An unexpected side effect of a frequently prescribed drug. Sakai.ohsu.edu Oregon Health Science University. Available at Sakai.Ohsu.edu/access/content/group/Shaver.pdf (last accessed September 2017)
  • Nichols L, Pfeifer K, Mammen AL, et al. An unusual case of statin-induced myopathy: Anti-HMGCoA necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. J Gen Intern Med 2015; 30: 1879-83; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-015-3303-9
  • Hinschberger O, Lohmann C, Lannes B, et al. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with antibodies to hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Rev Med Interne 2014; 35: 546-9; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revmed.2013.06.009
  • Ngo LQ, Wu AG, Nguyen MA, et al. A case report of autoimmune necrotizing myositis presenting as dysphagia and neck swelling. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord 2016; 16: 7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12901-016-0027-3
  • Boyce B. 002. Case report: statin-induced autoimmune necrotizing myopathy with positive HMGCR antibodies. Rheumatology 2015; 54 (suppl 1): i50; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kev088.002
  • Wongchawart M, Quinn R. Statin induced necrotizing myopathy. Proceeding of UCLA Healthcare 2016; 20
  • Curtin D, Costigan D, McCarthy C, et al. Novel antibody associations in immune-mediated necrotising myopathy without inflammation. Ir J Med Sci 2016; 185: 941-3; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11845-014-1207-z
  • Shagroni T, Park C, Rouah E, et al. Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy. Rheumatology 2017; 56: 1043-4; https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kew491
  • Marti J, Kolev I, Lorleac’h A, et al. Anti-HMG-CoA reductase necrotizing myopathy: A report of 4 cases. Rev Med Interne 2017; 38: 228-34; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revmed.2016.10.384
  • McGrath NM, Turner CP. Isolated gluteal and paravertebral muscle weakness due to anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase antibody-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Muscle Nerve 2016; 54: 150-2; https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25130
  • Watanabe Y, Suzuki S, Nishimura H, et al. Statins and myotoxic effects associated with anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase autoantibodies: an observational study in Japan. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94: e416; https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000416
  • Sweidan AJ, Leung A, Kaiser CJ, et al. A Case of Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy. Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2017; 10: 1179547616688231; https://doi.org/10.1177/1179547616688231
  • Oestmann A, Bründler J, Repond F. Invalidisierende muskelschwäche. Praxis 2017; 106: 45-7; https://doi.org/10.1024/1661-8157/a002576
  • Khan NAJ, Khalid S, Ullah S, et al. Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy: A rare variant of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2017; 5: 2324709617709031; https://doi.org/10.1177/2324709617709031
  • Kuru S, Suzuki S, Ogata K, et al. Screening of autoantibodies associated with necrotizing myopathy among undiagnosed chronic myopathy. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2017; 57: 562-6; https://doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001075
  • Brannick B, Childress R. A case of HMGCR-antibodies causing statin-associated autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. J Clin Lipidol 2017; 11: 824; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2017.04.086
  • Pongpakdee S, Suzuki S, Tanboon J, et al. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with anti HMGCR autoantibody: First case in Thailand. The 57th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Neurology. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.1024.2161
  • Garcìa MB, Cook EA. Statin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Proceedings of UCLA Healthcare 2017: 21
  • Horák T, Voháňka S, Tvrdíková E, et al. Statin-Induced Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy. Česká a slovenská neurologie a neurochirurgie 2017; 80/113: 569-77; https://doi.org/10.14735/amcsnn2017569
  • Jackson EJ, Chafizadeh E, Pham A. Case study: Autoimmune-mediated necrotizing myositis due to statin therapy. Lipid Spin 2016; 14: 23-5
  • Ong SG, Ding HJ. Patient with statin-associated immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy presenting with subcutaneous edema, persistent bulbar weakness and absent anti-HMGCR. Int J Rheum Dis 2017; 20: 2175-8; https://doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.12814
  • Ayesha SM, Meena AK, Vangala N, et al. Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy: Clinicopathologic study from a single tertiary care centre. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018; 21: 62-7
  • Giudizi MG, Cammelli D, Vivarelli E, et al. Anti-HMGCR antibody-associated necrotizing myopathy: diagnosis and treatment illustrated using a case report. Scand J Rheumatol 2016; 45: 427-9; https://doi.org/10.3109/03009742.2015.1132761
  • Ginanneschi F, Volpi N, Giannini F, et al. Rhabdomyolysis in an elderly multitreated patient: multiple drug interactions after statin withdrawal. J Neurol Sci 2014; 336: 284-7; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2013.10.040
  • Canzonieri E, De Candia C, Tarascio S, et al. A severe myopathy case in aged patient treated with high statin dosage. Toxicol Rep 2017; 4: 438-40; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.07.009
  • Ponzalino V, Bortolani S, Vercelli L, et al. Poster P22131 - Necrotizing myopathies: A single Centre experience. Eur J Neurol 2016; 23(Suppl.2): 552
  • Villa L, Peverelli L, Lerario A, et al. P.11 Statin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy: clinical, hystopathological and radiological characterization of five patients. Proceedings of the XVII Congress of the Italian Association of Myology. Acta Myol 2017; 36: 113
  • Lilleker JB, Vencovsky J, Wang G, et al.; all EuroMyositis contributors. The EuroMyositis registry: an international collaborative tool to facilitate myositis research. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77: 30-9; https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211868
  • Nazir S, Lohani S, Tachamo N, et al. Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy: A systematic review of 100 cases. J Clin Rheumatol 2017; 23: 149-54; https://doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000000497
  • Kennedy N, Keating P, O’Donnell J. HMGCR-associated myositis: a New Zealand case series and estimate of incidence. Intern Med J 2016; 46: 622-5; https://doi.org/10.1111/imj.13023
  • Parikh P, Tavee J, Soltanzadeh P, et al. Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase autoantibody-positive necrotizing autoimmune myopathy with dermatomyositis-like eruption. Muscle Nerve 2018; 57: E135-E136; https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26072
  • Liang E, Rastegar M. Immune-mediated necrotising myopathy: a rare cause of hyperCKaemia. BMJ Case Rep 2018; 2018: pii: bcr-2017-223870; https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-223870
  • Carvalho AAS, da Silva VG, Zanoteli E, et al. Myopathy due to HMGCR antibodies in adult mimicking muscular dystrophy associated with cancer and statin exposure - narrative review of the literature - case report. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018; 14: 903-7; https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S162931
  • Karunaratne K, Amiras D, Pickering MC, et al. Autoimmune necrotising myopathy and HMGCR antibodies. Pract Neurol 2018; 18: 151-5; https://doi.org/10.1136/practneurol-2017-001848
  • Vithayathil M, Phung A. Near-fatal statin-associated autoimmune myositis. J Clin Neurol 2018; 14: 426-7; https://doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2018.14.3.426
  • Aubignat M, Schmidt J, Gourguechon C, et al. Myopathies à anticorps anti-HMGCR : à propos de 5 cas. La Revue de Médecine Interne 2018; 39 (suppl 1): A227-A228; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revmed.2018.03.225
  • Ge Y, Lu X, Peng Q, et al. Clinical characteristics of anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase antibodies in Chinese patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0141616; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141616
  • Navarro Pérez MP, Sanabria Sanchinel AA, Alfaro Torres J, et al. Autoimmune necrotising myopathy: A case report. Neurologia 2017; pii: S0213-4853(17)30195-0; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2017.04.002
  • Landon-Cardinal O, Allenbach Y, Benveniste O. Anti-HMGCR Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy leading to identification of cancer relapse. Clin Med Rev Case Rep 2017; 4: 164; https://doi.org/10.23937/2378-3656/1410164
  • Rankin W, Gabb G, Coates P. Serious statin-associated myositis in an Australian Aboriginal man. Pathology 2017; 49 (S1): S13-S17; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2016.12.028
  • Allenbach Y, Keraen J, Bouvier AM, et al. High risk of cancer in autoimmune necrotizing myopathies: usefulness of myositis specific antibody. Brain 2016; 139(Pt 8): 2131-5; https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww054
  • Kadoya M, Hida A, Hashimoto Maeda M, et al. Cancer association as a risk factor for anti-HMGCR antibody-positive myopathy. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2016; 3: e290; https://doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000290
  • Tsujikawa K, Hara K, Muro Y, et al. HMGCR antibody-associated myopathy as a paraneoplastic manifestation of esophageal carcinoma. Neurology 2016; 87: 841-3; https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003006
  • Yamaguchi T, Matsunaga A, Ikawa M, et al. A case of anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibody-positive paraneoplastic necrotizing myopathy associated with advanced gastric cancer that responded to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2017; 57: 118-23; https://doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-000982
  • Pinal-Fernandez I, Parks C, Werner JL, et al. Longitudinal course of disease in a large cohort of myositis patients with autoantibodies recognizing the signal recognition particle. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017; 69: 263-70; https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22920
  • Allenbach Y, Arouche-Delaperche L, Preusse C, et al. Necrosis in anti-SRP+ and anti-HMGCR+myopathies: Role of autoantibodies and complement. Neurology 2018; 90: e507-e517; https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000004923
  • Christopher-Stine L, Casciola-Rosen LA, Hong G, et al. A novel autoantibody recognizing 200-kd and 100-kd proteins is associated with an immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 2757-66; https://doi.org/10.1002/art.27572
  • Werner JL, Christopher-Stine L, Ghazarian SR, et al. Antibody levels correlate with creatine kinase levels and strength in anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-associated autoimmune myopathy. Arhtritis Rheum 2012; 64: 4087-93; https://doi.org/10.1002/art.34673
  • Musset L, Miyara M, Benveniste O, et al. Analysis of autoantibodies to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase using different technologies. J Immunol Res 2014; 2014: 405956; https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/405956
  • Drouot L, Allenbach Y, Jouen F, et al.; French Myositis Network [CN]. Exploring necrotizing autoimmune myopathies with a novel immunoassay for anti-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase autoantibodies. Arthritis Res Ther 2014; 16: R39; https://doi.org/10.1186/ar4468
  • Limaye V, Bundell C, Hollingsworth P, et al. Clinical and genetic associations of autoantibodies to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme a reductase in patients with immune-mediated myositis and necrotizing myopathy. Muscle Nerve 2015; 52: 196-203; https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.24541
  • Shovman O, Gilburd B, Chayat C, et al. Anti-HMGCR antibodies demonstrate high diagnostic value in the diagnosis of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy following statin exposure. Immunol Res 2017; 65: 276-81; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-016-8867-x
  • Mammen AL, Pak K, Williams EK, et al. Rarity of anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibodies in statin users, including those with self-limited musculoskeletal side effects. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2012; 64: 269-72; https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.20662
  • Selva-O’Callaghan A, Alvarado-Cardenas M, Marin A, et al. Statins and myositis: the role of anti-HMGCR antibodies. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2015; 11: 1277-9; https://doi.org/10.1586/1744666X.2015.1102632
  • Betteridge ZE, Chinoy H, Jani M, et al. 055. Prevalence of autoantibodies to HMGCR in myositis patients. Rheumatology 2014; 53(suppl 1): i54; https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keu095.001
  • Liang WC, Uruha A, Suzuki S, et al. Pediatric necrotizing myopathy associated with anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase antibodies. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017; 56: 287-93; https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kew386
  • Barbacki A, Fallavollita SA, Karamchandani J, et al. Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathy and dietary sources of statins. Ann Intern Med 2018; 168: 893-904; https://doi.org/10.7326/L17-0620
  • Tansley SL, Betteridge ZE, Simou S, et al.; Juvenile Dermatomyositis Research Group. Anti-HMGCR autoantibodies in juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies identify a rare but clinically important subset of patients. J Rheumatol 2017; 44: 488-92; https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.160871
  • Kishi T, Rider LG, Pak K, et al.; for the Childhood Myositis Heterogeneity Study Group10. Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase autoantibodies are associated with DRB1*07:01 and severe myositis in pediatric myositis patients. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017; 69: 1088-94; https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23113
  • Mauhin W, Arouche-Delaperche L, Amelin D, et al. Les anticorps anti-HMGCoA-reductase associés aux myopathies nécrosantes auto-immunes ont une forte affinité pour l’HMGCoA-reductase sans pour autant l’inhiber. La Revue de Médecine Interne 2017; 38(Suppl.1): a73; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revmed.2017.03.059
  • Basharat P, Lahouti AH, Paik JJ, et al. Statin-induced anti-HMGCR-associated myopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016; 68: 234-5; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.04.037
  • Troyanov Y, Landon-Cardinal O, Fritzler MJ, et al. Atorvastatin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myositis: An emerging dominant entity in patients with autoimmune myositis presenting with a pure polymyositis phenotype. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96: e5694; https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005694
  • Balke M, Brunn A, Claeys KG, et al. Late onset necrotizing autoimmune myopathy 1 year after cessation of statin treatment. Acta Neurol Belg 2018; 7: 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0985-x
  • Eura N, Sugie K, Ozaki M, et al. Clinicopathological evaluation of anti-SRP versus anti-HMGCR myopathy: What are the similarities and differences? J Neurol Sci 2017; 381 (Suppl. 15): 273-4; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.08.780
  • Bergua C, Chiavelli H, Simon JP, et al. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Z Rheumatol 2016; 75: 151-6; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00393-015-0029-3
  • Pinal-Fernandez I, Mammen AL. Spectrum of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies and their treatments. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2016; 28: 619-24; https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0000000000000335
  • Watanabe Y, Uruha A, Suzuki S, et al. Clinical features and prognosis in anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR necrotising myopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016; 87: 1038-44; https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-313166
  • Albayda J, Mammen AL. Is statin-induced myositis part of the polymyositis disease spectrum? Curr Rheumatol Rep 2014; 16: 433; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926-014-0433-8
  • Morandi L, Angelini C, Prelle A, et al. High plasma creatine kinase: review of the literature and proposal for a diagnostic algorithm. Neurol Sci 2006; 27: 303-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-006-0701-0
  • Oruch R, Pryme IF, Engelsen BA, et al. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: an easily overlooked neurologic emergency. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017; 13: 161-75; https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S118438
  • Berman BD. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a review for neurohospitalists. Neurohospitalist 2011; 1: 41-7; https://doi.org/10.1177/1941875210386491
  • Tse L, Barr AM, Scarapicchia V, et al. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Review from a clinically oriented perspective. Curr Neuropharmacol 2015; 13: 395-406; https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X13999150424113345
  • Hama Y, Mori-Yoshimura M, Komaki H, et al. Childhood-onset anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (anti-HMGCR) necrotizing myopathy needs to be distinguished from muscular dystrophy: A case study. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2017; 57: 567-72; https://doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001040
  • Mohassel P, Foley AR, Donkervoort S, et al. Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase necrotizing myopathy masquerading as a muscular dystrophy in a child. Muscle Nerve 2017; 56: 1177-81; https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25567
  • Mammen AL. Which nonautoimmune myopathies are most frequently misdiagnosed as myositis? Curr Opin Rheumatol 2017; 29: 618-22; https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0000000000000441
  • Floyd JS, Brody JA, Tiniakou E, et al. Absence of anti-HMG-CoA reductase autoantibodies in severe self-limited statin-related myopathy. Muscle Nerve 2016; 54: 142-4. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.25127
  • Mammen AL, Chung T, Christopher-Stine L, et al. Autoantibodies against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in patients with statin-associated autoimmune myopathy. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63: 713-21; https://doi.org/10.1002/art.30156

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




© SEEd srl