Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Prevention and Monitoring Strategies According With Risk Factors

Enrica Giuffrida, Michela Mangia, Alessandro Lavagna, Enrico Morello, Maurizio Cosimato, Rodolfo Rocca, Marco Daperno

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v15i1.1464

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is slightly increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, with roughly a 2.5-fold increase compared to the general population. Clinical features associated to CRC risks are extent and severity of colonic involvement, disease duration, concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and/or familial history of CRC in first-degree relatives. Colonic Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) share similar risks when similar colonic extent is affected. Risk stratification affects outcomes and surveillance programs.

Newer endoscopic techniques substantially ameliorated diagnostic performance of endoscopy, and nowadays the standard for CRC surveillance in IBD patients is high-definition endoscopy, with dye-spray or virtual colonoscopy, oriented at targeted (+ random) colonic biopsies.

Visible dysplastic lesions should be considered for endoscopic resection, while invisible dysplasia is still a mandatory proctocolectomy indication.

Newer endoscopic interventional techniques (endoscopic mucosa resection, EMR, and endoscopic submucosal dissection, ESD) are appropriate therapeutic techniques to be delivered, but long-term risks of cancer should be balanced towards proctocolectomy.

Keywords

Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Cancer; Surveillance; Endoscopic Techniques

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References

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