Mortality related to neonatal and pediatric fungal infections

Paolo Manzoni, Elio Castagnola

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.857

Abstract

Thanks to the recent advances in the treatment of neonatal fungal infections, the burden of mortality has been decreasing. However a widely accepted definition is yet to be found, since different thresholds of survival are used in the published trials, and therefore mortality is assumed as occurring 7, 20, 30, or 90 days after treatment, according to the different studies. Regardless of the uncertainty of the definitions, it is more important to know if the patient died with the fungal infection or because of the fungal infection. The new antifungal drugs currently available for neonatal patients were able to increase the survival rates: the attention should, therefore, be focused on the long-term seque­lae, which, on the contrary, still affect a big amount of patients. In particular, neurobehavioral and neurosensorial disorders become often evident with age.

 

Keywords

Fungal infections; Long-term sequelae; Mortality rate; Neurobehavioral disorders

Full Text

HTML PDF

References

  • Benjamin DK Jr, Stoll BJ, Fanaroff AA, et al; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Neonatal candidiasis among extremely low birth weight infants: risk factors, mortality rates, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 84-92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2292
  • Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, et al. Early-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr 1996; 129: 72-80; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(96)70192-0; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(96)70191-9
  • Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 2002; 110(2 Pt 1): 285-91; http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.110.2.285
  • Clerihew L, Lamagni TL, Brocklehurst P, et al. Invasive fungal infection in very low birthweight infants: national prospective surveillance study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006; 91: F188-92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2005.082024
  • Benjamin DK Jr, DeLong ER, Steinbach WJ, et al. Empirical therapy for neonatal candidemia in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2003; 112: 543-7; http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.112.3.543
  • Kuhn DM, George T, Chandra J, et al. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida biofilms: unique efficacy of amphotericin B lipid formulations and echinocandins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 1773-80; http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.46.6.1773-1780.2002
  • Rodríguez-Adrián LJ, King RT, Tamayo-Derat LG, et al. Retinal lesions as clues to disseminated bacterial and candidal infections: frequency, natural history, and etiology. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003; 82: 187-202; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005792-200305000-00005; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.md.0000076008.64510.f1
  • Bharwani SK, Dhanireddy R. Systemic fungal infection is associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a meta-review. J Perinatol 2008; 28: 61-6; http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7211878
  • Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Adams-Chapman I, et al; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection. JAMA 2004; 292: 2357-65; http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.19.2357
  • Castagnola E, Cesaro S, Giacchino M, et al. Fungal infections in children with cancer: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25: 634-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000220256.69385.2e
  • Viscoli C, Castagnola E, Giacchino M, et al. Bloodstream infections in children with cancer: a multicentre surveillance study of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. Supportive Therapy Group-Infectious Diseases Section. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 770-4; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(99)00052-0
  • Grigull L, Beier R, Schrauder A, et al. Invasive fungal infections are responsible for one-fifth of the infectious deaths in children with ALL. Mycoses 2003; 46: 441-6; http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0933-7407.2003.00931.x
  • Krupova Y, Sejnova D, Dzatkova J, et al. Prospective study on fungemia in children with cancer: analysis of 35 cases and comparison with 130 fungemias in adults. Support Care Cancer 2000; 8: 427-30; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005200050013
  • Lin SJ, Schranz J, Teutsch SM. Aspergillosis case-fatality rate: systematic review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 358-66; http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/318483
  • Ridola V, Chachaty E, Raimondo G, et al. Candida infections in children treated with conventional chemotherapy for solid tumors (transplant recipients excluded): The Institut Gustave Roussy Pediatrics Department experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2004; 42: 332-7; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.10452
  • Viscoli C, Girmenia C, Marinus A, et al. Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Clin Infect Dis 1999 May;28(5):1071-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/514731
  • Wisplinghoff H, Seifert H, Wenzel RP, et al. Current trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies and solid neoplasms in hospitals in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 1103-10; http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/374339
  • Tortorano AM, Peman J, Bernhardt H, et al; ECMM Working Group on Candidaemia. Epidemiology of candidaemia in Europe: results of 28-month European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) hospital-based surveillance study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2004; 23: 317-22; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-004-1103-y

Statistics

Abstract: 1067 views
HTML: 567 views
PDF: 141 views

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




© SEEd srl